Fabrication of Gelatin Scaffolds Using Thermally Induced Phase Separation Technique


1 Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor, Malaysia

2 Advanced Membrane Technology Research Center, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor, Malaysia

3 Universiti Tun Hussain Onn Malaysia, 86400, Batu Pahat, Malaysia


Gelatin is considered as a partially degraded product of collagen and it is a biodegradable polymer which can be used to produce scaffolds for tissue engineering. Three-dimensional, porous gelatin scaffolds were fabricated by thermally induced phase separation and freeze-drying method. Their porous structure and pore size were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Scaffolds with different pore sizes were obtained by adjusting the concentration of the gelatin. Scaffolds with 3.75% (w/v) gelatin and 5% (w/v) gelatin produced pore range of 100 to 450µm.  The average pore size increased with the increase in gelatin concentration. Meanwhile, the properties of the scaffolds in terms of water uptake were studied. The results showed that when the concentration of the gelatin solution was changed from 3.75% to 5%, the water adsorption of the formed scaffolds decreased by 104%. The concentration of gelatin increase caused a reduction in water uptake.


  1. Martínez-Pérez, C. A., Olivas-Armendariz, I., Castro-Carmona, J. S., & García-Casillas, P. E. Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering Via Thermally Induced Phase Separation.  In Advances in Regenerative Medicine. InTech. (2011).
  2. Hutmacher, D. W. Scaffolds In Tissue Engineering Bone And Cartilage. Biomaterials. 21, 24, (2000), 2529-2543.
  3. Vogt, S., Larcher, Y., Beer, B., Wilke, I., Schnabelrauch, M., & Schnabelrauch, M. Fabrication Of Highly Porous Scaffold Materials Based On Functionalized Oligolactides And Preliminary Results On Their Use In Bone Tissue Engineering. Eur Cell Mater. 4, (2002), 30-38.
  4. Ma P.X., Zhang R.Y., Microtubular architecture of biodegradable polymer scaffolds. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 56, 4, (2001), 469-477.
  5. Lien, S. M., Ko, L. Y., & Huang, T. J. Effect of pore size on ECM secretion and cell growth in gelatin scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering. Acta Biomaterialia. 5, 2, (2009), 670-679.
  6. Maeda, Y., Jayakumar, R., Nagahama, H., Furuike, T., & Tamura, H. Synthesis, characterization and bioactivity studies of novel b-chitin scaffolds for tissue- engineering applications.  International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 42, 5, (2008), 463-467.
  7. Nagahama, H., Divya Rani, V. V., Shalumon, K. T., Jayakumar, R., Nair, S. V., Koiwa, S., et al. Preparation, characterization, bioactive and cell attachment studies of a-chitin/gelatin composite membranes. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 44, 4, (2009a), 333-337.
  8. Nagahama, H., Maeda, H., Kashiki, T., Jayakumar, R., Furuike, F., & Tamura, H. Preparation and characterization of novel chitosan/gelatin membranes using chitosan hydrogel. Carbohydrate Polymers. 76, 2, (2009b), 255-260.
  9. Liu, X. and Ma, P.X. Phase separation, pore structure, and properties of nanofibrous gelatin scaffolds. Biomaterials. 30, 25, (2009), 4094-4103.
  10. Sultana, N., & Wang, M. Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Using the Emulsion Freezing / Freeze-drying Technique and Characteristics of the Scaffolds. Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering. 2012, (2012), 63-89.
  11. De Lima, J. A., & Felisberti, M. I. Pororus polymer structure obtained via the TIPS process from EVOH/PMMA/DMF solutions. Journal of Membrane Science. 344, 1, (2009), 237-243.
  12. Olivas- Armendáriz I, García-Casillas P, Martinez-Sánchez R, Villafañe A.M and Martínez- Pérez C.A, Chitosan/MWCNT composites prepared by thermal induced phase separation. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 495, 2, (2010), 592-595.
  13. Sultana, N., Mokhtar, M., Hassan, M. I., Jin, R. M., Roozbahani, F., & Khan, T. H. Chitosan-based nanocomposite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 30, 3, (2015), 273-278.
  14. Mao, J., Zhao, L., Yao, K. De, Shang, Q., Yang, G., & Cao, Y. Study of novel chitosan-gelatin artificial skin in vitro. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 64, 2, . (2002), 301-308.
  15. Wu, X., Liu, Y., Li, X., Wen, P., Zhang, Y., Long, Y., Wang, X., Guo, Y., Xing, F. and Gao, J., Preparation of aligned porous gelatin scaffolds by unidirectional freeze-drying method.  Acta Biomaterialia. 6, 3, (2010), 1167-1177.
  16. Whang K., and Healy K.E., Methods of Tissue Engineering, A. Atala and R.P. Lanza, (Eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA (2002).
  17. Banerjee I, Mishra D, and Maiti T.K. PLGA Microspheres Incorporated Gelatin   Scaffold: Microspheres Modulate Scaffold Properties. International Journal of Biomaterials. 2009, (2009), 1-9.