Performance of Porous Pavement Containing Different Types of Pozzolans

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Garmsar, Garmsar, Iran

Abstract

Underlying fabrics can change the appearance, function and quality of the garment, and also add so much longevity of the garment. Nowadays, with the increasing use of various types of fabrics in the garment industry, their resistance to bagging is of great importance with the aim of determining the effectiveness of textiles under various forces. The current paper investigated the effect of underlying on the bagging behavior of denim fabrics. The experiments carried out on four different denim fabrics as the main components including cotton, polyester and lycra, as well as three types of adhesive interlining and three common lining as the underlying components. The adhesive interlining was added to the fabric by using a fusing machine, and the lining was sewn to the fabric. The bagging behavior was assessed by extraction of the residual bagging height using the image processing method and the bagging fatigue percentage by stress-strain diagram. The results showed that with the addition of adhesive interlining and lining to the fabric, the bagging fatigue percentage increased. The lining sewn to the fabric reduced the residual bagging height. Also, the friction between the face fabric and the lining was an important factor that, the bagging fatigue percentage increased with increasing the friction, regardless of the fabric material.

Keywords

Main Subjects


 
1. Schaefer, V. R., Wang, K., Sulieman, M. T. and Kevern, J. T.,
“Mix Design Development for Pervious Concrete in Cold
Weather Climates”, Final Report, Iowa Department of
Transportation. National Concrete Pavement Technology
Center, Iowa Concrete Paving Association, (2006). 
2. Chindaprasirt, P., Hatanaka, S., Chareerat, T., Mishima, N. and
Yuasa, Y., “Cement paste characteristics and porous concrete
properties”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 22, No.
5, (2008), 894–901,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.12.007. 
3. Deo, O. and Neithalath, N., “Compressive behavior of previous
concretes and a quantification of the influence of random pore
structure features”, Material Science and Engineering, Vol. 528,
No. 1, (2010), 402–412,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2010.09.024. 
4. Crouch, L. K., Pitt, J. and Hewitt, R., “Aggregate effects on
previous Portland cement concrete static modulus of elasticity”,
Journal of Material in Civil Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 7, (2007),
561–568, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)08991561(2007)19:7(561).
5. Yang, J. and Jiang, G., “Experimental study on properties of
pervious concrete pavement materials”, Cement and Concrete
Research, Vol. 33, No. 3, (2003), 381-386,
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00966-3. 
6. Kevern, J. T., “Advancement of pervious concrete durability”,
Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, (2008). 
7. Shirgir, B., Hasani, A. and Alizadeh, H., “The effect of aggregate
gradation on physical properties and permeability of porous
concrete in pavement application”, Omran Modarres, Vol. 11,
No. 1, (2012), 120-149. (in Persian). 
8. Lian, C. and Zhuge, Y., “Optimum mix design of enhanced
permeable concrete – an experimental investigation”,
Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 24, No. 12, (2010),
2664–2671, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.057. 
9. Corapcioglu, M. Y., “Advances in porous media”, Amsterdam
(Netherlands), Elsevier, Vol. 3, 1st Edition, (1994). 
10. Roy, D. M. and Gouda, G. R., “Porosity–strength relation in
cementitious materials with very high strengths”, Journal of the
American Ceramic Society, Vol. 53, No, 10, (1973), 549–50,
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1973.tb12410.x. 
11. Beaudoin, J. J. and Ramachandran, V. S., “A new perspective on
the hydration characteristics of cement phases”, Cement and
Concrete Research, Vol. 22, No. 4, (1992), 689–694,
https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(92)90021-M. 
12. Neville, A. M., “Properties of concrete”, England, Longman
Group Ltd, (1995). 
13. Feng, N. Q. and Peng, G. F., “Application of natural zeolite to
construction and building materials in China”, Construction and
Building Materials, Vol. 19, No. 8, (2005), 579–584,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.01.013.  
14. Mindess, S., Young, J. F. and Darwin, D., “Concrete”, USA,
Prentice Hall, (2002). 
15. Mehta, P. K., “Concrete: Structure, Properties and Materials”,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, (1986). 
16. Li, G. and Zhao, X., “Properties of concrete incorporating fly ash
and ground granulated blast-furnace slag”, Cement and Concrete
Composites, Vol. 25, No. 3, (2003), 293–299,
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(02)00058-6. 
17. Deb, P. S., Nath, P. and Sarker, P. K., “The effects of ground
granulated blast-furnace slag blending with fly ash and activator
content on the workability and strength properties of geopolymer
concrete cured at ambient temperature”, Materials and Design,
Vol 62, (2014), 32–39,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.05.001. 
18. Song, W. and Yin, J., “Hybrid effect evaluation of steel fiber and
carbon fiber on the performance of the fiber reinforced concrete”,
Materials, Vol. 9, No. 8, (2016), 704, doi: 10.3390/ma9080704. 
19. Leng, F., Feng, N. and Lu, X., “An experimental study on the
properties of resistance to diffusion of chloride ions of fly ash and
blast furnace slag concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research,
Vol. 30, No. 6 (2000), 989–992, https://doi.org/10.1016/S00088846(00)00250-7.
20. Glinicki, M. A., Józ´wiak-Niedz´wiedzka, D., Gibas, K. and
DË›browski, M., “Influence of blended cements with Calcareous
fly ash on chloride ion migration and carbonation resistance of
concrete for durable structures”, Materials, Vol. 9. No. 18,
(2016), 1-15, doi:10.3390/ma9010018. 
21. ASTM C618-12a, Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and
Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, ASTM
International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2012), www.astm.org. 
22. ASTM C349-14, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength
of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars (Using Portions of Prisms Broken
in Flexure), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA,
(2014), www.astm.org. 
23. ASTM C192 / C192M-16a, Standard Practice for Making and
Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory, ASTM
International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2016), www.astm.org.