Investigation of Barium Sulfate Precipitation and Prevention Using Different Scale Inhibitors under Reservoir Conditions


Department of Oil and Gas Fields Development and Operation, Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia


In this work, scaling tendency and amount of precipitation of barium sulfate (BaSO4) were determined; the process is depending on temperature, pressure and mixing ratio of injection and formation of waters. Results showed that BaSO4 precipitation is largely dependent on mixing ratio. Temperature and pressure had no influence on BaSO4 precipitation. Different scale inhibitors, including a new inhibitor package, were used for preventing BaSO4 precipitation. The new scale inhibitor consists of three different acids such as phosphonate acid, hydrochloric acid solution, isopropyl alcohol, ammonium chloride and water. In addition, the lowest interfacial tensionon the boundary of oil and new inhibitor occurred at 10% of hydrochloric acid. Furthermore, effect of temperature, mixing ratio of waters and barium concentration on the inhibition efficiency of BaSO4 formation was studied. Results showed that the new inhibitor has the highest efficiency for preventing BaSO4 precipitation at any temperature, mixing ratio and barium concentration. Moreover, formation damage due to BaSO4 formation with and without scale inhibitors was determined by core flood tests. In the presence of new inhibitor, the damaged rock permeability ratio was improved from 0.59 to 0.924.


  1. BinMerdhah, A. B., “Inhibition of barium sulfate scale at high-barium formation water”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 90-91, (2012), 124-130.
  2. Hennessy, A. J. B. and Graham, G. M., “The effect of additives on the co-crystallisation of calcium with barium sulphate”, Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 237-239, (2002), 2153-2159.
  3. Molchanov, A. A. and Ageev, P. G., “Implementation of new technology is a reliable method of extracting reserves remaining in hydro-carbon deposits”, Journal of Mining institute, Vol. 227, (2017), 530-539.
  4. Ahmadi, M. A., Mohammadzadeh, O. and Zendehboudi, S., “A cutting edge solution to monitor formation damage due to scale deposition: Application to oil recovery”, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 95, No. 5, (2017), 991-1003.
  5. Haghtalab, A., Kamali, M. J. and Shahrabadi, A., “Prediction mineral scale formation in oil reservoirs during water injection”, Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol. 373, (2014), 43-54.
  6. Morenov, V. and Leusheva, E., “Development of drilling mud solution for drilling in hard rocks”, International Journal of Engineering, Transaction A: Basics, Vol. 30, No. 4, (2017), 620-626.
  7. Kan, A. T. and Tomson, M. B., “Scale prediction for oil and gas production”, SPE Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, (2012), 362-378.
  8. Ranjbar, M., Khatami, R. and Younessi, R., “Prediction of sulfate scale depositions in oilfield operations using arithmetic of LR fuzzy numbers”, International Journal of Engineering, Transaction B: Applications, Vol. 19, No. 1, (2006), 99-106.
  9. Oddo, J. E. and Tomson, M. B., “Why scale forms in the oil field and methods to predict it”, SPE Production & Facilities, Vol. 9, No. 1, (1994), 47-54.
  10. Jamialahmadi, M. and Muller-Steinhage, H., “Mechanisms of scale deposition and scale removal in porous media”, International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, (2008), 81-108.
  11. El-Said, M., Ramzi, M. and Abdel-Moghny, T., “Analysis of oilfield waters by ion chromatography to determine the composition of scale deposition”, Desalination, Vol. 249, No. 2, (2009), 748-756.
  12. Khormali, A., Petrakov, D. G. and AfshariMoein, M. J., “Experimental analysis of calcium carbonate scale formation and inhibition in waterflooding of carbonate reservoirs”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 146, (2016), 843-850.
  13. Shaw, S. S., and Sorbie, K. S., “Synergistic properties of phosphonate and polymeric scale inhibitor blends for barium sulfate scale inhibition”, SPE Production & Operations, Vol. 30, No. 1, (2015), 16-25.
  14. Moayed, M. H., Abbaspour, Z. and Sadegian, M. H., “Study of pitting corrosion inhibition of mild steel by nitrite in concrete pore solution by polarization and zero resistance ammetery (ZRA) techniques”, International Journal of Engineering, Transaction B: Applications, Vol. 22, No. 4, (2009), 369-380.
  15. Khormali, A., Petrakov, D. G. and NazariMoghaddam, R., “Study of adsorption/desorption properties of a new scale inhibitor package to prevent calcium carbonate formation during water injection in oil reservoirs”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 153, (2017), 257-267.
  16. Khormali, A., Sharifov, A. R. and Torba, D. I., “Increasing efficiency of calcium sulfate scale prevention using a new mixture of phosphonate scale inhibitors during waterflooding”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 164, (2018), 245-258.
  17. Chew, C. B. and Mat, R., “The efficacy of calcium carbonate scale inhibition by commercial polymer scale inhibitors”, Chemical Engineering Transactions, Vol. 45, (2015), 1471-1476.