Experimental Study on Using Uniform Tuned Liquid Column Damper for Structural Control of Buildings Resting on Loose Soil


Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


In this study, through series of shaking table tests and statistical analysis, the efficiency of Uniform Tuned Liquid Column Damper (UTLCD) in structures resting on loose soils, considering soil-structure interaction was investigated. The soil beneath the structure is loose sandy soil. The Laminar Shear Box (LSB) as a soil container was adopted and the scaled form of the prototype structure namely model structure using scaling laws was built. Applying selected earthquake record the top story displacement of the soil-structure model was obtained. In the rest of the tests, the soil-structure model was equipped with UTLCD and tested. 3 different in sizes of UTLCDs, each with different blocking ratio and frequencies was used. To implement tests, completely randomized factorial design, with factors of Blocking ratio, Frequency and Type of the UTLCD was adopted. Through statistical analysis of the experimental tests was demonstrated that the mentioned factors are effective in response of the structure. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the optimum values of the factors to minimize the top story displacement has been found. In this study it was demonstrated that, due to low reduction in structural responses (in average 12 percent), the optimum UTLCD is not efficient enough in controlling structures resting on loose soils.


1.     Connor, J. and Laflamme, S., "Structural motion engineering, Springer,  Vol. 493,  (2014).
2.     Fujii, K., Tamura, Y., Sato, T. and Wakahara, T., "Wind-induced vibration of tower and practical applications of tuned sloshing damper", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,  Vol. 33, No. 1-2, (1990), 263-272.
3.     Koh, C., Mahatma, S. and Wang, C., "Reduction of structural vibrations by multiple-mode liquid dampers", Engineering Structures,  Vol. 17, No. 2, (1995), 122-128.
4.     Jin, Q., Li, X., Sun, N., Zhou, J. and Guan, J., "Experimental and numerical study on tuned liquid dampers for controlling earthquake response of jacket offshore platform", Marine Structures,  Vol. 20, No. 4, (2007), 238-254.
5.     Cammelli, S., Li, Y.F. and Mijorski, S., "Mitigation of wind-induced accelerations using tuned liquid column dampers: Experimental and numerical studies", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,  Vol. 155, (2016), 174-181.
6.     Wu, J.-C., Shih, M.-H., Lin, Y.-Y. and Shen, Y.-C., "Design guidelines for tuned liquid column damper for structures responding to wind", Engineering Structures,  Vol. 27, No. 13, (2005), 1893-1905.
7.     Balendra, T., Wang, C. and Cheong, H., "Effectiveness of tuned liquid column dampers for vibration control of towers", Engineering Structures,  Vol. 17, No. 9, (1995), 668-675.
8.     Gao, H., Kwok, K. and Samali, B., "Optimization of tuned liquid column dampers", Engineering Structures,  Vol. 19, No. 6, (1997), 476-486.
9.     Xue, S., Ko, J. and Xu, Y., "Tuned liquid column damper for suppressing pitching motion of structures", Engineering Structures,  Vol. 22, No. 11, (2000), 1538-1551.
10.   Di Matteo, A., Iacono, F.L., Navarra, G. and Pirrotta, A., "Experimental validation of a direct pre-design formula for tlcd", Engineering Structures,  Vol. 75, (2014), 528-538.
11.   Sarma, S., "Geotechnical earthquake engineering, IHE., (1996).
12.   Gazetas, G., "Seismic soil-structure interaction: New evidence and emerging issues state of the art paper", in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics Geo-Institute ASCE Conference., (1998), 1119-1174.
13.   Wolf, J.P. and Song, C., "Some cornerstones of dynamic soil–structure interaction", Engineering Structures,  Vol. 24, No. 1, (2002), 13-28.
14.   Sarlak, A., Saeedmonir, H. and Gheyretmand, C., "Numerical and experimental study of soil-structure interaction in structures resting on loose soil using laminar shear box", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 30, No. 11, (2017), 1654-1663.
15.   Xu, Y. and Kwok, K., "Wind-induced response of soil-structure-damper systems", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,  Vol. 43, No. 1-3, (1992), 2057-2068.
16.   Ghosh, A. and Basu, B., "Effect of soil interaction on the performance of tuned mass dampers for seismic applications", Journal of Sound and Vibration,  Vol. 3, No. 274, (2004), 1079-1090.
17.   Wang, J.-F. and Lin, C.-C., "Seismic performance of multiple tuned mass dampers for soil–irregular building interaction systems", International Journal of Solids and Structures,  Vol. 42, No. 20, (2005), 5536-5554.
18.   Farshidianfar, A., "Optimized tuned liquid column dampers for earthquake oscillations of high-rise structures including soil effects", International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering,  Vol. 2, (2012), 221-234..
19.   Min, K.-W., Kim, Y.-W. and Kim, J., "Analytical and experimental investigations on performance of tuned liquid column dampers with various orifices to wind-excited structural vibration", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,  Vol. 139, (2015), 62-69.
20.   Myers, R.H., Montgomery, D.C. and Anderson-Cook, C.M., "Response surface methodology: Process and product optimization using designed experiments (wiley series in probability and statistics)", Applied Probability and Statistics, (1995).
21.   Rocha, M., "The possibility of solving soil mechanics problems by the use of models", in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on SMFE. Vol. 22, (1957), 183-188.
22.   Moncarz, P.D. and Krawinkler, H., "Theory and application of experimental model analysis in earthquake engineering, Stanford University California,  Vol. 50, (1981).
23.   Iai, S., "Similitude for shaking table tests on soil-structure-fluid model in 1g gravitational field", Soils and Foundations,  Vol. 29, No. 1, (1989), 105-118.
24.   Meymand, P.J., "Shaking table scale model tests of nonlinear soil-pile-superstructure interaction in soft clay", (1998).
25.   Rayhani, M. and El Naggar, M.H., "Numerical modeling of seismic response of rigid foundation on soft soil", International Journal of Geomechanics,  Vol. 8, No. 6, (2008), 336-346.
26.   Zhu, F., Wang, J.-T., Jin, F. and Lu, L.-Q., "Seismic performance of tuned liquid column dampers for structural control using real-time hybrid simulation", Journal of Earthquake Engineering,  Vol. 20, No. 8, (2016), 1370-1390.