Evaluation of Flank Wear of Iron-rich Binder Carbide Cutting Tool in Turning of Titanium Alloy


1 Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi,Karnataka state, India

2 Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara University, Mysuru, Karnataka state, India


Despite the fact that Titanium material has been considered as difficult to cut material, its usage has been increasing day by day in all engineering sectors; wherever criticality is encountered. Many studies are going on in view of increasing tool life at high cutting speed to improve productivity. In this study, attempt has been made to see the effect of iron as a partial substitution  along with cobalt binder in cutting tool material for turning of titanium alloy. The iron-rich binder carbide tool samples were produced through powder metallurgy route  using a powders with mean particle size of less than 0.5µm. Turning experiments were conducted at different speeds to evaluate the effects of iron-rich binder on tool flank wear. Results of turning experiments clearly showed that iron-rich binder tend to increase tool life in comparison to conventional WC-Co composite cutting tools.


1.     Ezugwu, E. and Wang, Z., "Titanium alloys and their machinability—a review", Journal of Materials Processing Technology,  Vol. 68, No. 3, (1997), 262-274.
2.     Leyens, C. and Peters, M., "Titanium and titanium alloys: Fundamentals and applications, John Wiley & Sons,  (2003).
3.     Ahsan, K.B., Mazid, A.M., Clegg, R.E. and Pang, G., "Study on carbide cutting tool life using various cutting speeds for α-β ti-alloy machining", Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering,  Vol. 55, No. 2, (2012), 600-606.
4.     Ezugwu, E., Wang, Z. and Machado, A., "Wear of coated carbide tools when machining nickel (inconel 718) and titanium base (ti-6a1-4v) alloys", Tribology Transactions,  Vol. 43, No. 2, (2000), 263-268.
5.     Sun, S., Brandt, M. and Dargusch, M., "Characteristics of cutting forces and chip formation in machining of titanium alloys", International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture,  Vol. 49, No. 7-8, (2009), 561-568.
6.     B., L., Y, W., H, L. and H., Y., "Modelling and numerical  simulation of cutting stress in end milling of titanium alloy  using carbide coated tool", International Journal of Engineering Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 28, No. 7, (2015), 1090-1098.
7.     Komanduri, R., "Some clarifications on the mechanics of chip formation when machining titanium alloys", Wear,  Vol. 76, No. 1, (1982), 15-34.
8.     Nouari, M. and Makich, H., "Experimental investigation on the effect of the material microstructure on tool wear when machining hard titanium alloys: Ti–6al–4v and ti-555", International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials,  Vol. 41, No., (2013), 259-269.
9.     Friedrich, C. and Kulkarni, V., "Effect of workpiece springback on micromilling forces", Microsystem Technologies,  Vol. 10, No. 6-7, (2004), 472-477.
10.   Davim, J.P., "Machining of titanium alloys, Springer,  (2014).
11.   Kikuchi, M., "The use of cutting temperature to evaluate the machinability of titanium alloys", Acta Biomaterialia,  Vol. 5, No. 2, (2009), 770-775.
12.   Mia, M., Khan, M.A. and Dhar, N.R., "High-pressure coolant on flank and rake surfaces of tool in turning of ti-6al-4v: Investigations on surface roughness and tool wear", The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology,  Vol. 90, No. 5-8, (2017), 1825-1834.
13.   Gille, G., Szesny, B., Dreyer, K., Van Den Berg, H., Schmidt, J., Gestrich, T. and Leitner, G., "Submicron and ultrafine grained hardmetals for microdrills and metal cutting inserts", International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials,  Vol. 20, No. 1, (2002), 3-22.
14.   Fang, Z.Z., Wang, X., Ryu, T., Hwang, K.S. and Sohn, H., "Synthesis, sintering, and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline cemented tungsten carbide–a review", International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials,  Vol. 27, No. 2, (2009), 288-299.
15.   De Macedo, H., Da Silva, A. and de Melo, D., "The spreading of cobalt, nickel and iron on tungsten carbide and the first stage of hard metal sintering", Materials Letters,  Vol. 57, No. 24-25, (2003), 3924-3932.
16.   Davis, J.R., "Asm specialty handbook: Tool materials, ASM international,  (1995).
17.   Ramana, M.V., Rao, G.K.M. and Rao, D.H., "Experimental investigations on tool wear in turning of ti-6al-4v alloy under different machining environmental conditions", International Journal of Manufacturing Research,  Vol. 11, No. 4, (2016), 339-355.
18.   Zheng, X., Liu, Z., Chen, M. and Wang, X., "Experimental study on micro-milling of ti6al4v with minimum quantity lubrication", International Journal of Nanomanufacturing,  Vol. 9, No. 5-6, (2013), 570-582.
19.   Kalidass, S. and Ravikumarb, T.M., "Cutting force prediction in end milling process of aisi 304 steel using solid carbide tools", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 28, No. 7, (2015), 1074-1082.
20.   Ghani, J.A., Haron, C.H.C., Kasim, M.S., Sulaiman, M.A. and Tomadi, S.H., "Wear mechanism of coated and uncoated carbide cutting tool in machining process", Journal of Materials Research,  Vol. 31, No. 13, (2016), 1873-1879.