Wave Energy Dissipation Using Perforated and Non Perforated Piles


1 School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, University Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal , Penang, Malaysia

2 Department of Civil Engineering, North Tehran branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran

3 Ghiaseddin Jamshid Kashani Higher Education Institute, Iran


The indispensable vital structure in any harbor is a breakwater in order to make available calm water region inshore. Pile breakwater can be employed as a small coastal protection structure where tranquility required is low. This study is concerned with CFD study on the performance of perforated hollow pile to dissipate wave energy and the novelty of this investigation is the role of perforation layout in dissipating energy of water. Pile models under two different incident waves with constant water depth and wave amplitude have been classified into two groups with two different wavelengths, making a total of 10 models which has been simulated numerically by computational flow solver FLOW 3D. The analytical results of simulations show changes in the velocity profiles after piles while dissipation happened in the vicinity of the pile. The result implied the perforated models can perform better than the non-perforated ones and energy dissipation was found much more significant in perforated piles.


1.     Koraim, A.S.I., "Suggested model for the protection of shores and marina", Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt,  (2005).
2.     Ji, C.-H. and Suh, K.-D., "Wave interactions with multiple-row curtainwall-pile breakwaters", Coastal Engineering,  Vol. 57, No. 5, (2010), 500-512.
3.     Zhu, D., "Hydrodynamic characteristics of a single-row pile breakwater", Coastal Engineering,  Vol. 58, No. 5, (2011), 446-451.
4.     Suh, K.-D., Shin, S. and Cox, D.T., "Hydrodynamic characteristics of pile-supported vertical wall breakwaters", Journal of waterway, port, coastal, and ocean engineering,  Vol. 132, No. 2, (2006), 83-96.
5.     Hutchinson, P. and Raudkivi, A., Case history of a spaced pile breakwater at half moon bay marina auckland, new zealand, in Coastal engineering, (1984). 1985.2530-2535.
6.     Jiang, C., Yao, Y., Deng, Y. and Deng, B., "Numerical investigation of solitary wave interaction with a row of vertical slotted piles", Journal of Coastal Research,  Vol. 31, No. 6, (2015), 1502-1511.
7.     Hayashi, T., Hattori, M., Kano, T. and Shirai, M., "Hydraulic research on the closely spaced pile breakwater", Coastal Engineering in Japan,  Vol. 9, No. 1, (1966), 107-117.
8.     Kakuno, S. and Liu, P.L.-F., "Scattering of water waves by vertical cylinders", Journal of Waterway, port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering,  Vol. 119, No. 3, (1993), 302-322.
9.     Suh, K.-D., Jung, H.Y. and Pyun, C.K., "Wave reflection and transmission by curtainwall–pile breakwaters using circular piles", Ocean Engineering,  Vol. 34, No. 14-15, (2007), 2100-2106.
10.   Jarlan, G., "A perforated vertical wall breakwater", The Dock and Harbour Authority,  No. 486, (1961), 394-398.
11.   Tsai, C.-P., Chen, H.-B. and Lee, F.-C., "Wave transformation over submerged permeable breakwater on porous bottom", Ocean Engineering,  Vol. 33, No. 11-12, (2006), 1623-1643.
12.   Liu, Y., Li, Y.-c. and Teng, B., "Wave interaction with a perforated wall breakwater with a submerged horizontal porous plate", Ocean Engineering,  Vol. 34, No. 17-18, (2007), 2364-2373.
13.   Nikoo, M.R., Varjavand, I., Kerachian, R., Pirooz, M.D. and Karimi, A., "Multi-objective optimuma design of double-layer perforated-wall breakwaters: Application of nsga-ii and bargaining models", Applied Ocean Research,  Vol. 47, (2014), 47-52.
14.   Mirbagheri, S., RAJAEI, T. and MIRZAEI, F., "Solution of wave equations near seawalls by finite element method", International Journal of Engineering Transactions A Basics, Vol. 21, No. 1, (2008), 1-16.
15.   Rao, S., Rao, N. and Sathyanarayana, V., "Laboratory investigation on wave transmission through two rows of perforated hollow piles", Ocean Engineering,  Vol. 26, No. 7, (1999), 675-699.
16.   Rostami, F., Shahrokhi, M., Said, M.A.M. and Abdullah, R., "Numerical modeling on inlet aperture effects on flow pattern in primary settling tanks", Applied Mathematical Modelling,  Vol. 35, No. 6, (2011), 3012-3020.
17.   Rostami, F., Shahrokhi, M., Saod, M.A.M. and Yazdi, S.R.S., Retracted: Numerical simulation of undular hydraulic jump on smooth bed using volume of fluid method. (2013), Elsevier.
18.   Bin, Y.O., Tawi, K. and Suprayogi, S.D., "Computer simulation studies on the effect overlap ratio for savonius type vertical axis marine current turbine",  (2010).
19.   Cavaleri, L., Alves, J.-H., Ardhuin, F., Babanin, A., Banner, M., Belibassakis, K., Benoit, M., Donelan, M., Groeneweg, J. and Herbers, T., "Wave modelling–the state of the art", Progress in Oceanography,  Vol. 75, No. 4, (2007), 603-674.
20.   Jones, A. and Launder, D., Lectures in mathematical models of turbulence. (1972), London: Academic Press.
21.   Vincent, C.L. and Briggs, M.J., "Refraction—diffraction of irregular waves over a mound", Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering,  Vol. 115, No. 2, (1989), 269-284.