The Effect of Geopolymerization on the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Stabilized Fine-grained Soils


Department of Civil Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran


This study focuses on evaluating the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of improved fine-grained soils. A large database of unconfined compressive strength of clayey soil specimens stabilized with fly ash and blast furnace slag based geopolymer were collected and analyzed. Subsequently, using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), a model has been developed to assess the UCS of stabilized fine-grained soils. Types of additives and their compositions as well as soil characteristics were considered as the most important parameters affecting the resistance of stabilized soil. Subsequently, the accuracy of the proposed model was examined. Finally, a parametric study was conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed model and also the effect of each influential parameter on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of amended soil specimens. The results demonstrate that the ANFIS-based model, which was developed based on experimental results, can be successfully applied for assessment of unconfined compressive strength of stabilized fine-grained soils.


1.     Arulrajah, A., Abdullah, A., Bo, M.W. and Bouazza, A., "Ground improvement techniques for railway embankments", Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Ground Improvement,  Vol. 162, No. 1, (2009), 3-14.
2.     Javdanian, H., Haddad, A. and Mehrzad, B., "Interference effect on bearing capacity of multiple shallow foundations supported by geosynthetic-reinforced sand", in 5th Asian Regional Conference on Geosynthetics, Bangkok, Thailand., (2012 of Conference).
3.     Latifi, N., Horpibulsuk, S., Meehan, C.L., Abd Majid, M.Z., Tahir, M.M. and Mohamad, E.T., "Improvement of problematic soils with biopolymer—an environmentally friendly soil stabilizer", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,  Vol. 29, No. 2, (2016), DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001706.
4.     Marandi, S. and Javdanian, H., "Laboratory studies on bearing capacity of strip interfering shallow foundations supported by geogrid-reinforced sand", in Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publ. Vol. 472, (2012), 1856-1869.
5.     Abu-Farsakh, M., Chen, Q. and Sharma, R., "An experimental evaluation of the behavior of footings on geosynthetic-reinforced sand", Soils and Foundations,  Vol. 53, No. 2, (2013), 335-348.
6.     Edil, T.B., Acosta, H.A. and Benson, C.H., "Stabilizing soft fine-grained soils with fly ash", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,  Vol. 18, No. 2, (2006), 283-294.
7.     Awad, Y., Blagodatskaya, E., Ok, Y. and Kuzyakov, Y., "Effects of polyacrylamide, biopolymer and biochar on the decomposition of 14c‐labelled maize residues and on their stabilization in soil aggregates", European Journal of Soil Science,  Vol. 64, No. 4, (2013), 488-499.
8.     Kampala, A., Horpibulsuk, S., Prongmanee, N. and Chinkulkijniwat, A., "Influence of wet-dry cycles on compressive strength of calcium carbide residue–fly ash stabilized clay", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,  Vol. 26, No. 4, (2013), 633-643.
9.     Arulrajah, A., Kua, T.-A., Phetchuay, C., Horpibulsuk, S., Mahghoolpilehrood, F. and Disfani, M.M., "Spent coffee grounds–fly ash geopolymer used as an embankment structural fill material", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,  Vol. 28, No. 5, (2015), 04015197.
10.   Javdanian, H., Haddad, A. and Mehrzad, B., "Experimental and numerical investigation of the bearing capacity of adjacent footings on reinforced soil", Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,  Vol. 17, (2012), 2597-2617.
11.   Javdanian, H., Hamedi, A. and Ayoubi, H., "Interference effect on bearing capacity of shallow foundations constructed on geosynthetic-reinforced soil", in 9th International Congress on Civil Engineering, Isfahan, Iran., (2012 of Conference).
12.   Cicek, E., Guler, E. and Yetimoglu, T., "Effect of reinforcement length for different geosynthetic reinforcements on strip footing on sand soil", Soils and Foundations,  Vol. 55, No. 4, (2015), 661-677.
13.   Chen, Q. and Abu-Farsakh, M., "Ultimate bearing capacity analysis of strip footings on reinforced soil foundation", Soils and Foundations,  Vol. 55, No. 1, (2015), 74-85.
14.   Cristelo, N., Glendinning, S., Fernandes, L. and Pinto, A.T., "Effect of calcium content on soil stabilisation with alkaline activation", Construction and Building Materials,  Vol. 29, (2012), 167-174.
15.   Naeini, S.A., Naderinia, B. and Izadi, E., "Unconfined compressive strength of clayey soils stabilized with waterborne polymer", KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering,  Vol. 16, No. 6, (2012), 943-949.
16.   Zhang, M., Guo, H., El-Korchi, T., Zhang, G. and Tao, M., "Experimental feasibility study of geopolymer as the next-generation soil stabilizer", Construction and Building Materials,  Vol. 47, (2013), 1468-1478.
17.   Horpibulsuk, S., Suksiripattanapong, C., Samingthong, W., Rachan, R. and Arulrajah, A., "Durability against wetting–drying cycles of water treatment sludge–fly ash geopolymer and water treatment sludge–cement and silty clay–cement systems", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,  Vol. 28, No. 1, (2015), 04015078.
18.   Mozumder, R.A. and Laskar, A.I., "Prediction of unconfined compressive strength of geopolymer stabilized clayey soil using artificial neural network", Computers and Geotechnics,  Vol. 69, (2015), 291-300.
19.   Zhang, M., Zhao, M., Zhang, G., Nowak, P., Coen, A. and Tao, M., "Calcium-free geopolymer as a stabilizer for sulfate-rich soils", Applied Clay Science,  Vol. 108, (2015), 199-207.
20.   Phetchuay, C., Horpibulsuk, S., Arulrajah, A., Suksiripattanapong, C. and Udomchai, A., "Strength development in soft marine clay stabilized by fly ash and calcium carbide residue based geopolymer", Applied Clay Science,  Vol. 127, (2016), 134-142.
21.   Latifi, N., Eisazadeh, A., Marto, A. and Meehan, C.L., "Tropical residual soil stabilization: A powder form material for increasing soil strength", Construction and Building Materials,  Vol. 147, (2017), 827-836.
22.   Latifi, N., Meehan, C.L., Majid, M.Z.A. and Horpibulsuk, S., "Strengthening montmorillonitic and kaolinitic clays using a calcium-based non-traditional additive: A micro-level study", Applied Clay Science,  Vol. 132, (2016), 182-193.
23.   Rashid, A.S.A., Latifi, N., Meehan, C.L. and Manahiloh, K.N., "Sustainable improvement of tropical residual soil using an environmentally friendly additive", Geotechnical and Geological Engineering,  No. 1-11, doi: 10.1007/s10706-017-0265-1.
24.   Latifi, N. and Meehan, C.L., Strengthening of montmorillonitic and kaolinitic clays with calcium carbide residue: A sustainable additive for soil stabilization, in Geotechnical frontiers (2017), 154-163.
25.   Jafarian, Y., Haddad, A., Javdanian, H., “Predictive model for normalized shear modulus of cohesive soils”, Acta Geodynamica et Geomaterialia, Vol, 11, No. 1, (2014), 89–100.
26.   Javdanian, H., Haddad, A. and Jafarian, Y., "Evaluation of dynamic behavior of fine-grained soils using group method of data handling", Transportation Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, (2015), 77-92.
27.   Javdanian, H., Jafarian, Y. and Haddad, A., "Predicting damping ratio of fine-grained soils using soft computing methodology", Arabian Journal of Geosciences,  Vol. 8, No. 6, (2015), 3959-3969.
28.   Javdanian, H., "Assessment of shear stiffness ratio of cohesionless soils using neural modeling", Modeling Earth Systems and Environment,  Vol. 3, No. 3, (2017), 1045-1053.
29.   Baziar, M. and Jafarian, Y., "Assessment of liquefaction triggering using strain energy concept and ann model: Capacity energy", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,  Vol. 27, No. 12, (2007), 1056-1072.
30.   Javdanian, H., Heidari, A. and Kamgar, R., "Energy-based estimation of soil liquefaction potential using gmdh algorithm", Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering,  Vol. 41, No. 3, (2017), 283-295.
31.   Fashi, F.H., "Evaluation of adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference system approach for estimating saturated soil water content", Modeling Earth Systems and Environment,  Vol. 2, No. 4, (2016), 197-206.
32.   Zhou, X. and Shen, J., "Least square support vector machine for constitutive modeling of clay", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 28, No. 11, (2015), 1571-1578.
33.   Das, S.K., Samui, P. and Sabat, A.K., "Application of artificial intelligence to maximum dry density and unconfined compressive strength of cement stabilized soil", Geotechnical and Geological Engineering,  Vol. 29, No. 3, (2011), 329-342.
34.   Alavi, A., Gandomi, A., Gandomi, M. and Sadat Hosseini, S., "Prediction of maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of stabilised soil using rbf neural networks", The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering,  Vol. 2, No. 2, (2009), 98-106.
35.   Motamedi, S., Shamshirband, S., Petković, D. and Hashim, R., "Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy technique to predict the unconfined compressive strength of pfa-sand-cement mixture", Powder Technology,  Vol. 278, (2015), 278-285.
36.   Yaghmaei-Sabegh, S., "Wavelet-based analysis for pulse period of earthquake ground-motions", International Journal of Engineering Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 26, (2013), 1135-1144.
37.   Wagh, V.M., Panaskar, D.B., Muley, A.A., Mukate, S.V., Lolage, Y.P. and Aamalawar, M.L., "Prediction of groundwater suitability for irrigation using artificial neural network model: A case study of nanded tehsil, maharashtra, india", Modeling Earth Systems and Environment,  Vol. 2, No. 4, (2016), 196-204.
38.   Bahramifar, A., Shirkhani, R. and Mohammadi, M., "An anfis-based approach for predicting the manning roughness coefficient in alluvial channels at the bank-full stage", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 26, No. 2, (2013), 177-186.
39.   Moghadam-Fard, H. and Samadi, F., "Active suspension system control using adaptive neuro fuzzy (ANFIS) controller", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions C: Aspects,  Vol. 28, No. 3, (2014), 396.
40.   Kamalloo, A., Ganjkhanlou, Y., Aboutalebi, S.H. and Noranian, H., "Modeling of compressive strength of metakaolin based geopolymers by the use of artificial neural network research note", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 23, No. 2, (2010), 145-152.
41.   Sadeghpour Haji, M., Mirbagheri, S., Javid, A., Khezri, M. and Najafpour, G., "Awavelet support vector machine combination model for daily suspended sediment forecasting", International Journal of Engineering,  Vol. 27, No. 6, (2014), 855-864.
42.   Najafzadeh, M., Etemad-Shahidi, A. and Lim, S.Y., "Scour prediction in long contractions using anfis and svm", Ocean Engineering,  Vol. 111, (2016), 128-135.
43.   Najafzadeh, M. and Tafarojnoruz, A., "Evaluation of neuro-fuzzy gmdh-based particle swarm optimization to predict longitudinal dispersion coefficient in rivers", Environmental Earth Sciences,  Vol. 75, No. 2, (2016), 157.