An Experimental Study on Thermophysical Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (RESEARCH NOTE)


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab, India

2 Chemical Engineering Department, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab, India


Nanofluids are the heat transfer fluids having remarkable thermal properties. The paper presents the experimental analysis of thermal conductivity, density, specific heat and viscosity of multiwalled carbon nanoparticles dispersed in water at various temperatures and particle concentrations. To examine the forced convection heat transfer of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)-water nanofluid, the assessment of thermophysical properties are necessary. The two-step method was used to prepare the nanofluids with gum arabic surfactant. The thermophysical properties were measured using different volume concentrations (i.e. 0 – 0.9 vol.%) of nanoparticles and various temperatures (i.e. 30°C to 70°C). The thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and viscosity were measured with the help of KD2 Pro Thermal Property Analyser, Differential Scanning Calorimeter, KEM-DA 130N - Portable density meter, Brookfield LVDV-III ultra-programmable viscometer. The experiment found an enhancement in thermal conductivity and specific heat with rise in temperature whereas viscosity and density decreases with increase in temperature. On the other hand the thermal conductivity, viscosity and density increases with increase in MWCNT’s concentration but the specific heat was found to diminish with a rise in particle concentration.


1.     Chol, S., "Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles", ASME-Publications-Fed,  Vol. 231, (1995), 99-106.
2.     Yu, W., France, D.M., Choi, S.U. and Routbort, J.L., "Review and assessment of nanofluid technology for transportation and other applications" (2007), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
3.     Munkhbayar, B., Tanshen, M.R., Jeoun, J., Chung, H. and Jeong, H., "Surfactant-free dispersion of silver nanoparticles into mwcnt-aqueous nanofluids prepared by one-step technique and their thermal characteristics", Ceramics International,  Vol. 39, No. 6, (2013), 6415-6425.
4.     Iijima, S., "Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon", nature,  Vol. 354, No. 6348, (1991), 56-64.
5.     Ding, Y., Alias, H., Wen, D. and Williams, R.A., "Heat transfer of aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes (cnt nanofluids)", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,  Vol. 49, No. 1, (2006), 240-250.
6.     Kim, P., Shi, L., Majumdar, A. and McEuen, P., "Thermal transport measurements of individual multiwalled nanotubes", Physical Review Letters,  Vol. 87, No. 21, (2001), 215502.
7.     Choi, S., Zhang, Z., Yu, W., Lockwood, F. and Grulke, E., "Anomalous thermal conductivity enhancement in nanotube suspensions", Applied Physics Letters,  Vol. 79, No. 14, (2001), 2252-2254.
8.     Xie, H., Lee, H., Youn, W. and Choi, M., "Nanofluids containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their enhanced thermal conductivities", Journal of Applied Physics,  Vol. 94, No. 8, (2003), 4967-4971.
9.     Liu, M., Lin, M.C. and Wang, C., "Enhancements of thermal conductivities with cu, cuo, and carbon nanotube nanofluids and application of mwnt/water nanofluid on a water chiller system", Nanoscale Research Letters,  Vol. 6, No. 1, (2011), 297-305.
10.   Ko, G.H., Heo, K., Lee, K., Kim, D.S., Kim, C., Sohn, Y. and Choi, M., "An experimental study on the pressure drop of nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes in a horizontal tube", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,  Vol. 50, No. 23, (2007), 4749-4753.
11.   Ruan, B. and Jacobi, A.M., "Heat transfer characteristics of multiwall carbon nanotube suspensions (mwcnt nanofluids) in intertube falling-film flow", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,  Vol. 55, No. 11, (2012), 3186-3195.
12.   Garg, P., Alvarado, J.L., Marsh, C., Carlson, T.A., Kessler, D.A. and Annamalai, K., "An experimental study on the effect of ultrasonication on viscosity and heat transfer performance of multi-wall carbon nanotube-based aqueous nanofluids", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,  Vol. 52, No. 21, (2009), 5090-5101.
13.   Ganeshkumar, J., Kathirkaman, D., Raja, K., Kumaresan, V. and Velraj, R., "Experimental study on density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture dispersed with carbon nanotubes", Thermal Science,  (2015), 28-28.
14.   Gohari, M.S., Ebadzadeha, T. and Rashidi, A., "An experimental study on the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes/oil", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions C: Aspects,  Vol. 27, No. 3, (2013), 411.
15.   Jamal-Abad, M.T. and Zamzamian, A., "Thermal conductivity of Cu and Al-water nanofluids", International Journal of Engineering Transactions B: Application,  Vol. 26, No. 8, (2013), 821-828.
16.   Chiam, H., Azmi, W., Usri, N., Mamat, R. and Adam, N., "Thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3 nanofluids for different based ratio of water and ethylene glycol mixture", Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science,  Vol. 81, No., (2017), 420-429.
17.   Farbod, M. and Ahangarpour, A., "Improved thermal conductivity of ag decorated carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids", Physics Letters A,  Vol. 380, No. 48, (2016), 4044-4048.
18.   Li, F.-C., Yang, J.-C., Zhou, W.-W., He, Y.-R., Huang, Y.-M. and Jiang, B.-C., "Experimental study on the characteristics of thermal conductivity and shear viscosity of viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluids containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes", Thermochimica Acta,  Vol. 556, (2013), 47-53.
19.   Atashrouz, S., Pazuki, G. and Alimoradi, Y., "Estimation of the viscosity of nine nanofluids using a hybrid gmdh-type neural network system", Fluid Phase Equilibria,  Vol. 372, (2014), 43-48.
20.   Atashrouz, S., Mozaffarian, M. and Pazuki, G., "Modeling the thermal conductivity of ionic liquids and ionanofluids based on a group method of data handling and modified maxwell model", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,  Vol. 54, No. 34, (2015), 8600-8610.
21.   Halelfadl, S., Estelle, P., Aladag, B., Doner, N. and Mare, T., "Viscosity of carbon nanotubes water-based nanofluids: Influence of concentration and temperature", International Journal of Thermal Sciences,  Vol. 71, (2013), 111-117.
22.   Jamshidi, N., Farhadi, M., Ganji, D. and Sedighi, K., "Experimental investigation on viscosity of nanofluids", International Journal of Engineering,  Vol. 25, No. 3, (2012), 201-209.
23.   Atashrouz, S., Mozaffarian, M. and Pazuki, G., "Viscosity and rheological properties of ethylene glycol+ water+ fe3o4 nanofluids at various temperatures: Experimental and thermodynamics modeling", Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering,  Vol. 33, No. 9, (2016), 2522-2529.
24.   Prashant, S., G.  and T.P.S., S., "Experimental investigation of heat transfer characteristics of plate heat exchanger using alumina - water based nanofluids at different orientations1", Indian Journal of Science and Technology,  Vol. 9 No. 48.
25.   Singh, S., Singh, G. and Singla, A., "Experimental studies on heat transfer performance of double pipe heat exchanger with using baffles and nanofluids", Indian Journal of Science and Technology,  Vol. 9, No. 40, (2016).
26.   Singh, G. and Sarao, T., "Experimental analysis of heat transfer and friction factor in plate heat exchanger with different orientations using Al2O3 nanofluids", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 29, No. 10, (2016), 1450-1459.
27.   Xiao, B., Yang, Y. and Chen, L., "Developing a novel form of thermal conductivity of nanofluids with brownian motion effect by means of fractal geometry", Powder Technology,  Vol. 239, (2013), 409-414.
28.   Xing, M., Yu, J. and Wang, R., "Experimental study on the thermal conductivity enhancement of water based nanofluids using different types of carbon nanotubes", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,  Vol. 88, (2015), 609-616.
29.   Elias, M., Mahbubul, I., Saidur, R., Sohel, M., Shahrul, I., Khaleduzzaman, S. and Sadeghipour, S., "Experimental investigation on the thermo-physical properties of Al2O3 nanoparticles suspended in car radiator coolant", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer,  Vol. 54, (2014), 48-53.
30.   Alexiadis, A. and Kassinos, S., "The density of water in carbon nanotubes", Chemical Engineering Science,  Vol. 63, No. 8, (2008), 2047-2056.
31.   Kumaresan, V., Khader, S.M.A., Karthikeyan, S. and Velraj, R., "Convective heat transfer characteristics of cnt nanofluids in a tubular heat exchanger of various lengths for energy efficient cooling/heating system", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,  Vol. 60, (2013), 413-421.
32.   Chen, L., Xie, H., Li, Y. and Yu, W., "Nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes treated by mechanochemical reaction", Thermochimica Acta,  Vol. 477, No. 1, (2008), 21-24.