Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic from Cuttlefish Shell Waste and Coral Using Microwave Hydrothermal

Document Type : Original Article


1 Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Universitas Bengkulu, Indonesia

3 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Indonesia is an archipelagic country with two continents and an ocean, where it produces abundant marine products and the second largest marine source in the world, such as cuttlefish. Besides, it was for food, cuttlefish also produced shells as waste. Actually, this waste has been used for animal feed but in small scale. Others are still waste and cause pollution if not handled properly. Cuttlefish shell waste (CSW) is the basic ingredient for making hydroxyapatite (HA), while it was the main bone compound. Meanwhile, HA demand in the market is very high due to bone defects. The novelty of the research was to fulfil the increasing need for HA at low price and prevent air, water, and soil pollution by using circular economic principles (reused), and it has economic value. Synthesis HA was used microwave hydrothermal method. The CSW and coral were obtained from the pet market in Yogyakarta. They were crushed and calcined to the temperature of 900oC to obtain calcium oxide (CaO). Then, CaO was synthesized by microwave hydrothermal to obtain HA powder. Synthetic HA was characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Ca/P ratio of HA CSW and coral are 1.7 and 1.87, respectively. Moreover, coral HA has higher crystallinity than CSW (48%). The TGA shows that the highest weight loss occurred in HA CSW (16.57%). The conclusion is that both CSW and coral are raw materials used to produce HA.

Graphical Abstract

Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic from Cuttlefish Shell Waste and Coral Using Microwave Hydrothermal


Main Subjects

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