Performance Evaluation of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Regression in Tunneling-Induced Settlement Prediction Incorporating Umbrella Arch Method Characteristics

Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

3 Faculty of Science and Engineering, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, United Kingdom


Accurate settlement forecasting is essential for preventing severe structural and infrastructure damage. This paper investigates predicting tunneling-induced ground settlements using machine learning models. Empirical methods for estimating settlements are often imprecise and site-specific. Developing novel, accurate prediction methods is critical to avoid catastrophic damage. The umbrella arch method constrains deformations for initial stability before installing primary support. This study develops machine learning models to forecast settlements solely from umbrella arch parameters, disregarding soil properties. Multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANN) and support vector regression (SVR) are applied. Results demonstrate machine learning outperforms empirical methods. The MLP-ANN surpasses SVR, with R2 of 0.98 and 0.92, respectively. Strong correlation is observed between umbrella arch configuration and settlements. The suggested approach effectively estimates surface displacements lacking mechanical properties. Overall, this study supports machine learning, specifically MLP-ANN, as an efficient, reliable alternative to empirical methods for predicting tunneling-induced ground settlements from umbrella arch design.

Graphical Abstract

Performance Evaluation of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Regression in Tunneling-Induced Settlement Prediction Incorporating Umbrella Arch Method Characteristics


Main Subjects

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