Well-to-wheel Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission Comparison of Electric and Fossil Fuel Buses: Tehran Case Study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Engineering, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

2 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Western University, London, ON, Canada


The development of public transportation is considered a vital issue in reducing traffic as well as urban pollution. City buses play an important role in the city transportation system. In Iran, due to the high average age of city buses, it is necessary to replace the old buses with new ones, To replace the old buses, diesel and CNG, hybrid, and electric buses are proposed as the main alternatives. Global warming and the energy crisis are now considered as two potential serious threats for the world. Therefore, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are examined as two outstanding criteria for comparing candidate buses in this paper. To make an accurate comparison, the amount of energy consumption and CO2 emissions have been calculated based on the well-to-wheel approach. The electric bus well-to-wheel analysis has been done for both electricity generation mix and renewable generation. To perform more accurate calculations and simulations, as a case study, a real driving cycle has been constructed for Tehran. For this approach, a modified micro trip method as a novel solution is presented to synthesize the driving cycle. The results show that due to the high share of fossil power plants (about 92%) in Iran, the use of electric buses in the bus fleet may not have much effect on reducing energy and CO2 eq emissions. By using renewable power plants, the amount of well-to-wheel energy consumption and CO2 emissions decrease significantly (about 56% and 93%, respectively) compared to that for the generation mix.

Graphical Abstract

Well-to-wheel Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission Comparison of Electric and Fossil Fuel Buses: Tehran Case Study


Main Subjects

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