Design and Optimization of High-gain Series and Parallel-fed Array Antennas for Enhanced Gain and Front-to-back Ratio in X-Band Applications

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, AP, India


This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the design of a high-performance meta-material loaded square patch antenna arrays specifically tailored for X-band applications. To enhance the gain and front to back ratio (FTBR), a novel 1×3 series-fed linear array configuration that integrates solitary series-fed elements with metamaterial-based square patches at X-band frequencies is introduced. Later, parallel-fed 1×2 and 1×4 antenna arrays are designed by considering the series-fed antenna array as a single element for further enhancement of gain and FTBR. The single element 1×3 series fed array is fabricated with dimensions of λ×3.5λ×0.028λ, whereas the respective 1×2 and 1×4 parallel fed antenna arrays has the dimensions of 2.86λ×3.8λ×0.028λ and 2.86λ×4.3λ×0.028λ, respectively. The Taconic substrate is chosen as the dielectric material, exhibiting a dielectric constant of 2.2 and a loss tangent of 0.0025. The empirical data presented substantiates the superior performance of the 1×4 parallel fed configuration. This is evident through the remarkable reflection coefficient of -25dB, the wide bandwidth spanning 47MHz, the substantial gain of 17.8dBi, and the FTBR of 30.7. The metrics serve to highlight the array''s capacity in guaranteeing a superior level of signal fidelity, encompassing a wide frequency spectrum, amplifying incoming signals, and directing transmissions towards specific orientations. These metrics unequivocally validate its potential for advanced X-band applications.

Graphical Abstract

Design and Optimization of High-gain Series and Parallel-fed Array Antennas for Enhanced Gain and Front-to-back Ratio in X-Band Applications


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