Performance and Economic Analysis of the Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste as Recycled Concrete Aggregates

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Civil Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, India


Construction and demolition (C&D) wastes are increasing continuously with intensified construction activities worldwide resulting in ecological concerns. Recycling of these waste products into recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in base and sub-base layers of pavement is one of the solutions for the problem. Thus, the present study is an in-depth investigation of the utilization of the RCA in construction sector containing laboratory tests, microstructural characterization, and economic analysis. The experiment revealed that, for each mix proportion, the maximum dry density decreases and the ideal moisture content increases as the cement percentage is increased. The 7-day average ultimate compressive strength value for natural aggregates (NA) and recycled concrete (RCA) combined with additives met the requirements. The durability index for all the mix proportions was greater than 0.80. Finally, it was found that 17.86% of the material cost was saved with incorporation of RCA (50%)-NA (50%) for the construction of the sub-base layer of the pavement.

Graphical Abstract

Performance and Economic Analysis of the Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste as Recycled Concrete Aggregates


Main Subjects

  1. Jain MS. A mini review on generation, handling, and initiatives to tackle construction and demolition waste in India. Environmental Technology & Innovation. 2021;22:101490. 10.1016/j.eti.2021.101490
  2. Thang V, Cung L, Nguyen D. An Application of Artificial Neural Network to Predict the Compressive Strength of Concrete using Fly Ash and Stone Powder Waste Products in Central Vietnam. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications. 2022;35(5):967-76. 10.5829/IJE.2022.35.05B.12
  3. Sumardi D, Rochman T, Riskiyah I. High-contribution of strip glass waste in buckling-strengthening of slim GLARC columns at once avoiding ASR deterioration problems in concrete materials. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications. 2021;34(11):2452-66. 10.5829/ije.2021.34.11b.09
  4. Mohsin MS, Alwash NA, Kadhum MM. Comparative Study on Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Straight Beam and Beams with out of Plane Parts. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics. 2021;34(10):2280-93. 10.5829/ije.2021.34.10a.09
  5. Gunasekaran K, Choudhury S. Experimental Study on Single Bay Reinforced Coconut Shell Concrete Portal Frame under Lateral and Cyclic Load. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications. 2021;34(8):1905-12. 10.5829/ije.2021.34.08b.12
  6. Beiram A, Al-Mutairee H. Effect of using waste rubber as partial replacement of coarse aggregate on torsional strength of square reinforced concrete beam. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications. 2022;35(2):397-405. 10.5829/IJE.2022.35.02B.16
  7. Malhotra V. Durability of concrete incorporating high-volume of low-calcium (ASTM Class F) fly ash. Cement and Concrete Composites. 1990;12(4):271-7. 10.1016/0958-9465(90)90006-J
  8. Woolley G, Coombs R. The significance of improvements in fly ash quality. Waste Management. 1996;16(1-3):7-13. 10.1016/S0956-053X(96)00025-6
  9. Zakaria M, Cabrera J. Performance and durability of concrete made with demolition waste and artificial fly ash-clay aggregates. Waste Management. 1996;16(1-3):151-8. 10.1016/S0956-053X(96)00038-4
  10. Kou SC, Poon CS, Chan D. Influence of fly ash as a cement addition on the hardened properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Materials and structures. 2008;41:1191-201. 10.1617/s11527-007-9317-y
  11. Barbhuiya S, Gbagbo J, Russell M, Basheer P. Properties of fly ash concrete modified with hydrated lime and silica fume. Construction and Building Materials. 2009;23(10):3233-9. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.06.001
  12. Kou S, Poon CS. Enhancing the durability properties of concrete prepared with coarse recycled aggregate. Construction and building materials. 2012;35:69-76. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.02.032
  13. Anastasiou E, Filikas KG, Stefanidou M. Utilization of fine recycled aggregates in concrete with fly ash and steel slag. Construction and Building Materials. 2014;50:154-61. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.09.037
  14. da Silva SR, de Oliveira Andrade JJ. Investigation of mechanical properties and carbonation of concretes with construction and demolition waste and fly ash. Construction and Building Materials. 2017;153:704-15. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.143
  15. Mohammadinia A, Arulrajah A, Haghighi H, Horpibulsuk S. Effect of lime stabilization on the mechanical and micro-scale properties of recycled demolition materials. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2017;30:58-65. 10.1016/j.scs.2017.01.004
  16. Arulrajah A, Mohammadinia A, D'Amico A, Horpibulsuk S. Effect of lime kiln dust as an alternative binder in the stabilization of construction and demolition materials. Construction and Building Materials. 2017;152:999-1007. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.070
  17. Cristelo N, Fernández-Jiménez A, Vieira C, Miranda T, Palomo Á. Stabilisation of construction and demolition waste with a high fines content using alkali activated fly ash. Construction and Building Materials. 2018;170:26-39. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.057
  18. Das SK, Shrivastava S. A study on the viability of fly ash and construction and demolition waste as geopolymerized masonry mortar and their comparative analysis. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2020;32:574-83. 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.402
  19. Marathe S, Shetty TS, Mithun B, Ranjith A. Strength and durability studies on air cured alkali activated pavement quality concrete mixes incorporating recycled aggregates. Case Studies in Construction Materials. 2021;15:e00732. 10.1016/j.cscm.2021.e00732
  20. Jethy B, Paul S, Naik B. Effect of utilization of rice husk ash on hardened properties of recycled concrete aggregate. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2022;59:1625-35. 10.1016/j.matpr.2022.03.322
  21. Hemalatha T, Ramaswamy A. A review on fly ash characteristics–Towards promoting high volume utilization in developing sustainable concrete. Journal of cleaner production. 2017;147:546-59. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.114
  22. Bun P, Cyr M, Laniesse P, Bun KN, Idir R. Concrete made of 100% recycled materials-Feasibility study. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2022;180:106199. 10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106199
  23. Imtiaz T, Ahmed A, Hossain MS, Faysal M. Microstructure analysis and strength characterization of recycled base and sub-base materials using scanning electron microscope. Infrastructures. 2020;5(9):70. 10.3390/infrastructures5090070
  24. Evangelista L, Guedes M, Ferro A, de Brito J. Microstructure of concrete prepared with construction recycled aggregates. Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2013;19(S4):147-8. 10.1017/S1431927613001359
  25. Pawluczuk E, Kalinowska-Wichrowska K, Jimenez JR, Fernández-Rodríguez JM, Suescum-Morales D. Geopolymer concrete with treated recycled aggregates: Macro and microstructural behavior. Journal of Building Engineering. 2021;44:103317. 10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103317