Comprehensive Framework of Influential Factors on Innovation Ecosystem Resilience: Using Meta-Synthesis and Structural Equation Modelling

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran


Resilience of the innovation ecosystem as a driving force of knowledge-based economies, provides relative stability against environmental disruptions. Currently, finding a comprehensive framework of factors influencing innovation ecosystem resilience is a major concern of policymakers to effectively select policies of resilience improvement. This research analyzes and presents a comprehensive framework of factors influencing innovation ecosystem resilience by using meta-synthesis approach, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. These factors include Adaptability, Innovation Management, Recovery Capability, Culture, Resource, Robustness, Strategic Planning, and Vulnerability. In this paper, Iranian Power Innovation Ecosystem is considered as a case study. The computational results indicate that vulnerability and adaptability are the most influential factors on innovation ecosystem resilience, while recovery capacity and resiliency culture are less impactful factors. The innovative aspects of this study include the use of meta-Synthesis method for systematic review, content analysis, and categorization of influential factors, as well as the presentation of a comprehensive framework based on factor analysis and structural modelling. The findings of this research assist innovation ecosystem policymakers in evaluating various factors and planning accordingly to achieve their desired goals based on the aforementioned framework.

Graphical Abstract

Comprehensive Framework of Influential Factors on Innovation Ecosystem Resilience: Using Meta-Synthesis and Structural Equation Modelling


Main Subjects

  1. Yin D, Ming X, Zhang X. Sustainable and smart product innovation ecosystem: An integrative status review and future perspectives. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020;274:123005. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123005
  2. Jucevičius G, Grumadaitė K. Smart development of innovation ecosystem. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences. 2014;156:125-9. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.11.133
  3. Engler J, Kusiak A. Modeling an innovation ecosystem with adaptive agents. International journal of innovation science. 2011;3(2):55-68. 10.1260/1757-2223.3.2.55
  4. Robertson J, Caruana A, Ferreira C. Innovation performance: The effect of knowledge-based dynamic capabilities in cross-country innovation ecosystems. International Business Review. 2021:101866. 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2021.101866
  5. Gillespie-Marthaler L, Nelson KS, Baroud H, Kosson DS, Abkowitz M. An integrative approach to conceptualizing sustainable resilience. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. 2019;4(2):66-81. 10.1080/23789689.2018.1497880
  6. Bai T, Li J. Resilience Evaluation of Innovation Ecosystem of High-tech Enterprises in Liaoning Province. Financial Engineering and Risk Management. 2022;5(1):61-8. 10.23977/ferm.2022.050110
  7. Hosseini S, Barker K, Ramirez-Marquez JE. A review of definitions and measures of system resilience. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2016;145(1):47-61. 10.1016/j.ress.2015.08.006
  8. Nelson K, Gillespie-Marthaler L, Baroud H, Abkowitz M, Kosson D. An integrated and dynamic framework for assessing sustainable resilience in complex adaptive systems. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. 2020;5(5):311-29. 10.1080/23789689.2019.1578165
  9. Nylund PA, Ferras-Hernandez X, Brem A. Strategies for activating innovation ecosystems: introduction of a taxonomy. IEEE Engineering Management Review. 2019;47(4):60-6. 10.1109/EMR.2019.2931696
  10. Xiao L, Cao H, editors. Organizational resilience: The theoretical model and research implication. ITM Web of Conferences; 2017: EDP Sciences. 10.1051/itmconf/20171204021
  11. Walker B, Holling CS, Carpenter SR, Kinzig A. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and society. 2004;9(2). 10.5751/ES-00650-090205
  12. Herrera H, Kopainsky B. Using system dynamics to support a participatory assessment of resilience. Environment systems and decisions. 2020;40(3):342-55. 10.1007/s10669-020-09760-5
  13. Egli L, Weise H, Radchuk V, Seppelt R, Grimm V. Exploring resilience with agent-based models: state of the art, knowledge gaps and recommendations for coping with multidimensionality. Ecological Complexity. 2019;40(2):100718. 10.1016/j.ecocom.2018.06.008
  14. Bruneau M, Chang SE, Eguchi RT, Lee GC, O'Rourke TD, Reinhorn AM, et al. A framework to quantitatively assess and enhance the seismic resilience of communities. Earthquake spectra. 2003;19(4):733-52. 10.1193/1.1623497
  15. Sauser B, Baldwin C, Pourreza S, Randall W, Nowicki D. Resilience of small-and medium-sized enterprises as a correlation to community impact: an agent-based modeling approach. Natural Hazards. 2018;90(1):79-99. 10.1007/s11069-017-3034-9
  16. Henry D, Ramirez-Marquez JE. Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2012;99(1):114-22. 10.1016/j.ress.2011.09.002
  17. Sweetapple C, Fu G, Butler D. Reliable, robust, and resilient system design framework with application to wastewater-treatment plant control. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2017;143(3):04016086. 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001171
  18. Ahmadi S, Saboohi Y, Vakili A. Frameworks, quantitative indicators, characters, and modeling approaches to analysis of energy system resilience: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2021;144(10):110988. 10.1016/j.rser.2021.110988
  19. Tran HT, Balchanos M, Domerçant JC, Mavris DN. A framework for the quantitative assessment of performance-based system resilience. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2017;158:73-84. 10.1016/j.ress.2016.10.014
  20. Biddle L, Wahedi K, Bozorgmehr K. Health system resilience: a literature review of empirical research. Health policy and planning. 2020;35(8):1084-109. 10.1093/heapol/czaa032
  21. Zhu J, Manandhar B, Truong J, Ganapati NE, Pradhananga N, Davidson RA, et al. Assessment of infrastructure resilience in the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. Earthquake Spectra. 2017;33(1_suppl):147-65. 10.1193/121116eqs231m
  22. Yu S, Kim S-W, Oh C-W, An H, Kim J-M. Quantitative assessment of disaster resilience: An empirical study on the importance of post-disaster recovery costs. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2015;137:6-17. 10.1016/j.ress.2014.12.007
  23. Burnard KJ, Bhamra R. Challenges for organisational resilience. Continuity & Resilience Review. 2019. 10.1108/CRR-01-2019-0008
  24. Hillmann J, Guenther E. Organizational resilience: a valuable construct for management research? International Journal of Management Reviews. 2021;23(1):7-44. 10.1111/ijmr.12239
  25. Ma Z, Xiao L, Yin J. Toward a dynamic model of organizational resilience. Nankai Business Review International. 2018;9(1):246–63. 10.1108/NBRI-07-2017-0041
  26. Hamel G, Valikangas L. The quest for resilience, Harvard business review, September, 2003. 2003.
  27. Chen R, Xie Y, Liu Y. Defining, conceptualizing, and measuring organizational resilience: A multiple case study. Sustainability. 2021;13(5):2517. 10.3390/su13052517
  28. Annarelli A, Battistella C, Nonino F. A framework to evaluate the effects of organizational resilience on service quality. Sustainability. 2020;12(3):958-73. 10.3390/su12030958
  29. Lee AV, Vargo J, Seville E. Developing a tool to measure and compare organizations’ resilience. Natural hazards review. 2013;14(1):29-41. 10.3390/su12030958
  30. McManus S, Seville E, Vargo J, Brunsdon D. Facilitated process for improving organizational resilience. Natural hazards review. 2008;9(2):81-90. 10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2008)9:2(81)
  31. Rahi K. Indicators to assess organizational resilience–a review of empirical literature. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment. 2019;10(2/3):85-98. 10.1108/IJDRBE-11-2018-0046
  32. Sanchis R, Poler R. Enterprise resilience assessment—A quantitative approach. Sustainability. 2019;11(16):4327. 10.3390/su11164327
  33. Aleksić A, Stefanović M, Arsovski S, Tadić D. An assessment of organizational resilience potential in SMEs of the process industry, a fuzzy approach. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2013;26(6):1238-45. 10.1016/j.jlp.2013.06.004
  34. Tong Y, Liu Q, He K, Liu M. Research on the Influencing Factors of Innovation Ecosystem Resilience of High-tech Enterprises. Industrial Engineering and Innovation Management. 2022;5(1):57-63. 10.23977/ieim.2022.050110
  35. Roundy PT, Brockman BK, Bradshaw M. The resilience of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Journal of Business Venturing Insights. 2017;8:99-104. 10.1016/j.jbvi.2017.08.00
  36. Sant TD, de Souza Bermejo PH, Moreira MF, de Souza WVB. The structure of an innovation ecosystem: foundations for future research. Management Decision. 2020;58(12):2725-42. 10.1108/MD-03-2019-0383
  37. Sandelowski M, Barroso J. Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research: springer publishing company; 2006.
  38. Bak O, Shaw S, Colicchia C, Kumar V. A systematic literature review of supply chain resilience in small–medium enterprises (SMEs): A call for further research. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. 2020;70(1):328-41. 10.1109/TEM.2020.3016988
  39. Pal R, Torstensson H, Mattila H. Antecedents of organizational resilience in economic crises—an empirical study of Swedish textile and clothing SMEs. International Journal of Production Economics. 2014;147:410-28. 10.1016/j.ijpe.2013.02.031
  40. Majnouni-Toutakhane A, Sareban VH. Promotion of Urban Resilience with Citizens’ Local Participation Approach Case Study: Bonab City. Journal of Engineering Research. 2019;7(1).
  41. Christopher M, Peck H. Building the resilient supply chain. 2004.
  42. Petit F, Bassett G, Black R, Buehring W, Collins M, Dickinson D, et al. Resilience measurement index: An indicator of critical infrastructure resilience. Argonne National Lab.(ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); 2013.
  43. Saad MH, Hagelaar G, van der Velde G, Omta S. Conceptualization of SMEs’ business resilience: A systematic literature review. Cogent Business & Management. 2021;8(1):1938347. 10.1080/23311975.2021.1938347
  44. Li T, Dong Y, Liu Z. A review of social-ecological system resilience: Mechanism, assessment and management. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;723:138113. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138113
  45. Shirali GA, Mohammadfam I, Ebrahimipour V. A new method for quantitative assessment of resilience engineering by PCA and NT approach: A case study in a process industry. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2013;119:88-94.
  46. Azadeh A, Salehi V, Ashjari B, Saberi M. Performance evaluation of integrated resilience engineering factors by data envelopment analysis: The case of a petrochemical plant. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 2014;92(3):231-41. 10.1016/j.psep.2013.03.002
  47. Jalali G, Tavakkoli-Moghaddam R, Ghomi-Avili M, Jabbarzadeh A. A network design model for a resilient closed-loop supply chain with lateral transshipment. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions C: Aspects. 2017;30(3):374-83. 10.5829/idosi.ije.2017.30.03c.07
  48. Pant R, Barker K, Zobel CW. Static and dynamic metrics of economic resilience for interdependent infrastructure and industry sectors. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2014;125:92-102. 10.1016/j.ress.2013.09.007
  49. Cutter SL, Barnes L, Berry M, Burton C, Evans E, Tate E, et al. A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global environmental change. 2008;18(4):598-606. 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.013
  50. Rose AZ. Economic resilience to disasters. 2009(1).
  51. Buliga O, Scheiner CW, Voigt K-I. Business model innovation and organizational resilience: towards an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of Business Economics. 2016;86(6):647-70. 10.1007/s11573-015-0796-y
  52. Muller G. Fuzzy architecture assessment for critical infrastructure resilience. Procedia Computer Science. 2012;12:367-72. 10.1016/j.procs.2012.09.086
  53. Rezaei M, Tolou-Askari M, Amirahmadi M, Ghods V. Challenges of Generation and Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Power System Resilience and Provide Solutions. International Journal of Engineering, Transaction B: Applications. 2023;36(5):824-41. 10.5829/IJE.2023.36.05B.01
  54. Ates A, Bititci U. Change process: a key enabler for building resilient SMEs. International Journal of Production Research. 2011;49(18):5601-18. 10.1080/00207543.2011.563825
  55. Biggs D, Hicks CC, Cinner JE, Hall CM. Marine tourism in the face of global change: The resilience of enterprises to crises in Thailand and Australia. Ocean & coastal management. 2015;105:65-74. 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.12.019
  56. Gunasekaran A, Rai BK, Griffin M. Resilience and competitiveness of small and medium size enterprises: an empirical research. International journal of production research. 2011;49(18):5489-509. 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.12.019
  57. Biggs D. Understanding resilience in a vulnerable industry: the case of reef tourism in Australia. Ecology and society. 2011;16(1). 10.5751/ES-03948-160130
  58. Vlacheas P, Stavroulaki V, Demestichas P, Cadzow S, Ikonomou D, Gorniak S. Towards end-to-end network resilience. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection. 2013;6(3-4):159-78. 10.1016/j.ijcip.2013.08.004
  59. Henry D, Ramirez-Marquez JE. Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2012;99:114-22. 10.1016/j.ress.2011.09.002
  60. Kahan JH, Allen AC, George JK. An operational framework for resilience. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. 2009;6(1). 10.2202/1547-7355.1675
  61. Keck M, Sakdapolrak P. What is social resilience? Lessons learned and ways forward. Erdkunde. 2013:5-19. 10.3112/erdkunde.2013.01.02
  62. Spiegler VL, Naim MM, Wikner J. A control engineering approach to the assessment of supply chain resilience. International journal of production research. 2012;50(21):6162-87. 10.1080/00207543.2012.710764
  63. Percoco M. Infrastructure and economic efficiency in Italian regions. Networks and Spatial Economics. 2004;4(4):361-78. 10.1007/s11067-014-9261-7
  64. Pettit TJ, Fiksel J, Croxton KL. Ensuring supply chain resilience: development of a conceptual framework. Journal of business logistics. 2010;31(1):1-21. 10.1002/j.2158-1592.2010.tb00125.x
  65. Rose A. Economic resilience to natural and man-made disasters: Multidisciplinary origins and contextual dimensions. Environmental Hazards. 2007;7(4):383-98. 10.1016/j.envhaz.2007.10.001
  66. Chang SE, Shinozuka M. Measuring improvements in the disaster resilience of communities. Earthquake spectra. 2004;20(3):739-55. 10.1193/1.1775796
  67. Faturechi R, Levenberg E, Miller-Hooks E. Evaluating and optimizing resilience of airport pavement networks. Computers & Operations Research. 2014;43:335-48. 10.1016/j.cor.2013.10.009
  68. Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology. 1975;28(4):563-75. 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x
  69. Lowry PB, Gaskin J. Partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling (SEM) for building and testing behavioral causal theory: When to choose it and how to use it. IEEE transactions on professional communication. 2014;57(2):123-46. 10.1109/TPC.2014.2312452
  70. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL. Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 6): Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River. NJ; 2006.
  71. Rouf MA, Akhtaruddin M. Factors affecting the voluntary disclosure: a study by using smart PLS-SEM approach. International Journal of Law and Management. 2018;60(6):1498-508. 10.1108/IJLMA-01-2018-0011
  72. Taber KS. The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in science education. 2018;48:1273-96. 10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2
  73. Bagozzi RP, Yi Y. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science. 1988;16:74-94. 10.1007/BF02723327
  74. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling: Guilford publications; 2023.
  75. Dijkstra TK, Henseler J. Consistent partial least squares path modeling. MIS quarterly. 2015;39(2):297-316. 10.25300/MISQ/2015/39.2.02
  76. Adger WN. Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in human geography. 2000;24(3):347-64. 10.1191/030913200701540465