Optimal Capacity and Location for Renewable-based Microgrids Considering Economic Planning in Distribution Networks

Document Type : Original Article


Smart Electric Distribution Network Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran


By integrating distributed generation resources with the distribution network, the stability and reliability of the distribution network will increase. Due to the advantages of microgrids and the need to implement them, as well as the high cost of installation of distributed generation resources, the existence of a comprehensive and optimal method by considering various aspects of microgrid design is felt more than ever. In this paper, an optimal method for designing microgrids with various conditions is presented. In the first stage, the design of microgrids is discussed on a multi-purpose basis, considering its economic aspects. At this stage, to make a compromise between the economic aspects, the proposed problem is modeled as two-objective functions. In the second stage, the design of distributed generation sources is done in the first level and then in the second level, the optimal placement of switches is done to determine the electrical boundaries of microgrids. In this paper, the discussion of optimal microgrid location based on economic planning using a two-level particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm on the standard IEEE 33 Bus network in MATLAB software was performed and for this network, three microgrids with two keys were used.


Main Subjects

  1. Tan, M., Chen, Y., Su, Y. and Duan, B., "Simulation planning of power supply capacity: An approach to optimal industrial microgrid operation with carbon emission permits", International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 5, (2019), 303-311. https://doi.org/10.1080/19397038.2018.1547331
  2. Aazami, R., Heydari, O., Tavoosi, J., Shirkhani, M., Mohammadzadeh, A. and Mosavi, A., "Optimal control of an energy-storage system in a microgrid for reducing wind-power fluctuations", Sustainability, Vol. 14, No. 10, (2022), 6183. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106183
  3. Iranmehr, H., Aazami, R., Tavoosi, J., Shirkhani, M., Azizi, A.-R., Mohammadzadeh, A., Mosavi, A.H. and Guo, W., "Modeling the price of emergency power transmission lines in the reserve market due to the influence of renewable energies", Frontiers in Energy Research, Vol. 9, (2022), 792418. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2021.792418
  4. Tavoosi, J., Shirkhani, M., Azizi, A., Din, S.U., Mohammadzadeh, A. and Mobayen, S., "A hybrid approach for fault location in power distributed networks: Impedance-based and machine learning technique", Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 210, (2022), 108073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2022.108073
  5. Mohammadi, F., Mohammadi-Ivatloo, B., Gharehpetian, G.B., Ali, M.H., Wei, W., Erdinç, O. and Shirkhani, M., "Robust control strategies for microgrids: A review", IEEE Systems Journal, (2021). doi: 10.1109/JSYST.2021.3077213.
  6. Danyali, S., Aghaei, O., Shirkhani, M., Aazami, R., Tavoosi, J., Mohammadzadeh, A. and Mosavi, A., "A new model predictive control method for buck-boost inverter-based photovoltaic systems", Sustainability, Vol. 14, No. 18, (2022), 11731. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811731
  7. Wang, L. and Singh, C., "Pso-based multi-criteria optimum design of a grid-connected hybrid power system with multiple renewable sources of energy", in 2007 IEEE swarm intelligence symposium, IEEE. Vol., No. Issue, (2007), 250-257.
  8. Belfkira, R., "Modélisation et optimisation de centrales multi-sources de production d’énergies électrique: Application aux sites isolés", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Le Havre, (2009),
  9. Sharma, S., Bhattacharjee, S. and Bhattacharya, A., "Probabilistic operation cost minimization of micro-grid", Energy, Vol. 148, (2018), 1116-1139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.01.164
  10. Borhanazad, H., Mekhilef, S., Ganapathy, V.G., Modiri-Delshad, M. and Mirtaheri, A., "Optimization of micro-grid system using mopso", Renewable Energy, Vol. 71, (2014), 295-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2014.05.006
  11. Wang, C. and Nehrir, M.H., "Analytical approaches for optimal placement of distributed generation sources in power systems", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 19, No. 4, (2004), 2068-2076.
  12. Zou, K., Agalgaonkar, A.P., Muttaqi, K.M. and Perera, S., "Distribution system planning with incorporating dg reactive capability and system uncertainties", IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 3, No. 1, (2011), 112-123.
  13. Soroudi, A., Caire, R., Hadjsaid, N. and Ehsan, M., "Probabilistic dynamic multi-objective model for renewable and non-renewable distributed generation planning", IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 5, No. 11, (2011), 1173-1182. doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2011.0173.
  14. Soroudi, A. and Afrasiab, M., "Binary pso-based dynamic multi-objective model for distributed generation planning under uncertainty", IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 6, No. 2, (2012), 67-78. doi: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2011.0028.
  15. Fang, F., Zhu, Z., Jin, S. and Hu, S., "Two-layer game theoretic microgrid capacity optimization considering uncertainty of renewable energy", IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, (2020), 4260-4271. doi: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2011.0028.
  16. Zhang, H., Xie, Z., Lin, H.-C. and Li, S., "Power capacity optimization in a photovoltaics-based microgrid using the improved artificial bee colony algorithm", Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 9, (2020), 2990. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10092990
  17. Wazir, A. and Arbab, N., "Analysis and optimization of ieee 33 bus radial distributed system using optimization algorithm", Journal of Emerging Trends in Applied Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, (2016), 17-21.
  18. Bagheri Tolabi, H. and Ayob, S., "Dynamic modeling and controller design of distribution static compensator in a microgrid based on combination of fuzzy set and galaxy-based search algorithm", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 29, No. 10, (2016), 1392-1400. doi: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2016.29.10a.10.
  19. Rashno, A., Shafipour, M. and Fadaei, S., "Particle ranking: An efficient method for multi-objective particle swarm optimization feature selection", Knowledge-based Systems, Vol. 245, (2022), 108640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2022.108640
  20. Mansouri Kouhestani, F., Byrne, J., Johnson, D., Spencer, L., Brown, B., Hazendonk, P. and Scott, J., "Multi-criteria pso-based optimal design of grid-connected hybrid renewable energy systems", International Journal of Green Energy, Vol. 17, No. 11, (2020), 617-631. doi: 10.1080/15435075.2020.1779072.
  21. Shafipour, M., Rashno, A. and Fadaei, S., "Particle distance rank feature selection by particle swarm optimization", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 185, (2021), 115620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2021.115620
  22. Ahmadigorji, M. and Mehrasa, M., "A robust renewable energy source-oriented strategy for smart charging of plug-in electric vehicles considering diverse uncertainty resources", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 36, No. 4, (2023), 709-719. doi: 10.5829/ije.2023.36.04a.10.
  23. Niazi, G. and Lalwani, M., "Pso based optimal distributed generation placement and sizing in power distribution networks: A comprehensive review", in 2017 International Conference on Computer, Communications and Electronics (Comptelix), IEEE. (2017), 305-311.
  24. HassanzadehFard, H. and Jalilian, A., "A novel objective function for optimal dg allocation in distribution systems using meta-heuristic algorithms", International Journal of Green Energy, Vol. 13, No. 15, (2016), 1615-1625. doi: 10.1080/15435075.2016.1212355.
  25. Moradi, M. and Abedini, M., "A combination of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization for optimal distributed generation location and sizing in distribution systems with fuzzy optimal theory", International Journal of Green Energy, Vol. 9, No. 7, (2012), 641-660. doi: 10.1080/15435075.2011.625590.
  26. Masrufun, M., "Optimization of dg placement and size using pso based on gui", in 2020 International Conference on Smart Technology and Applications (ICoSTA), IEEE. (2020), 1-6.
  27. Nagaballi, S., Bhosale, R.R. and Kale, V., "A hybrid fuzzy and pso based optimum placement and sizing of dg in radial distribution system", in 2018 International Conference on Smart Electric Drives and Power System (ICSEDPS), IEEE. (2018), 272-275.
  28. HassanzadehFard, H. and Jalilian, A., "Optimal sizing and siting of renewable energy resources in distribution systems considering time varying electrical/heating/cooling loads using pso algorithm", International Journal of Green Energy, Vol. 15, No. 2, (2018), 113-128. doi: 10.1080/15435075.2018.1423981.
  29. Abdel-Salam, M., El-Mohandes, M.T. and Shaker, E., "Pso-based performance improvement of distribution systems using dg sources", in 2016 Eighteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), IEEE. (2016), 866-870.