Experimental Study of Lateral Loading on Piled Raft Foundations on Sandy Soil

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Civil Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India


A Shallow foundation on cohesionless soil cannot support greater weights; piled raft foundations are recommended because they combine the load-bearing qualities of piles and raft. Combined Piled Raft Foundations (CRPF) are efficient for tall buildings because they account for both vertical and lateral loads. In a pile raft foundation, the raft’s load-resistance is disregarded due to soil-structure interaction. Simplification may lead to an uneconomical design. While study on raft’s vertical resistance is extensive, its horizontal resistance is limited. In the present study, 160 mm x 160 mm pile-raft model with different pile spacing and pile length was tested. Studies showed that pile length and spacing of pile improve bearing capacity and reduce settlement of raft. The pile raft system rests 65 percentage of the lateral load, depending on pile spacing and its length. Pile spacing and pile length lessen the raft’s lateral load contribution. Furthermore, as increasing in pile spacing reduces raft overturning by 60 percentage. Upgrade pile raft system design may make a cheaper and more efficient option for skyscrapers and make this foundation system more economical design.


Main Subjects

  1. Burland, J. B., Broms, B. B., and de Mello, V. F. B. “Behaviour of foundations and structures.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Tokyo, Japan. July 10-15, 1977, Vol. 2, (1977), 495-536.
  2. Poulos H. G.,1 and Davis E. H., “Pile foundation analysis and design.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(81)90191-1
  3. Ali, A. H., Abbas, H. O., and Abed-Awn, S. H. “Behavior of Raft Foundation Built on Layered Soil under Different Earthquake Excitation.” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, 35, No. 8, (2022), 1509-1515. https://doi.org/10.5829/IJE.2022.35.08B.07
  4. Clancy, P., and Randolph, M. F. “An approximate analysis procedure for piled raft foundations.” International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechancs, Vol. 17, (1993), 849-869.
  5. Horikoshi K., and Randolph M. F., “Centrifuge modeling of piled raft foundation on clay.” Geotechnique, Vol. 46, No. 4, (1996), 741-752.
  6. Anthony Chibuzo Ekeleme, Benjamin Nnamdi Ekwueme, and Jonah Chukwuemeka Agunwamba, "Modeling Contaminant Transport of Nitrate in Soil Column." Emerging Science Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, (2021), 471-485. doi: 28991/esj-2021-01290.
  7. Widjojo A. Prakoso and Fred H. Kulhawy. “Contribution to Piled Raft Foundation Design.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 127, No. 1, (2001), 17-24. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)10900241(2001)127:1(17)
  8. Small J. C., and Zhang H. H., “Behavior of piled raft foundations under lateral and vertical loading.” International Journal of Geomechanics, Vol. 2, No. 1, (2002), 29-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/15323640208500171
  9. Irfan Jamil, Irshad Ahmad, and Wali Ullah, “Contribution of raft to resist lateral loads in a piled raft foundation-experimental finding.” Earthquakes and Structures, Vol. 21, No. 3, (2021), 265-276. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2021.21.3.265
  10. Hamada J., Tsuchiya T., Tanikawa T., and Yamashita K., “Lateral loading tests on piled rafts and simplified method to evaluate sectional forces of piles.”, Geotechnical Engineering Journal, Vol. 46, No. 2, (2015), 29-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/1064119X.2020.1766607.
  11. Soumya Roy, and Bikash Chandra Chattopadhyay, “Study on Piled Raft Foundation Subjected to Inclined Compressive Loading Condition.” International Journal of Civil Engineering Research. Vol. 8, No. 2, (2017), 91-111.
  12. Zarinfar., " Investigating the Effect of Soil Layering on Soil-structure Interaction under Seismic Load.", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 35 No. 10, (2022), 1989-2006.
  13. Thakur, and A. Desai, " Aspects of Foundation-soil Interaction of Nuclear Structures under Seismic Conditions through the State-of-art Review.", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 35, No. 09, (2022) 1716-1722.
  14. Cao X D., Wong I H., Chang M F., “Behavior of Model Rafts Resting on Pile-Reinforced Sand.”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 2, (2004), 129-138.
  15. Xiao-jun Zhu, Kang Fei, and Sheng-wei Wang, “Horizontal Loading Tests on Disconnected Piled Raft and a Simplified Method to Evaluate the Horizontal Bearing Capacity. ” Advances in Civil Enginering, Vol. 2018, (2018), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3956509
  16. Goudar S., Kamatagi A., “An Experimental Evaluation of Axial Load Bearing Capacity of Belled and Straight Piles Embedded in Sand.” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 35, No. 8, (2022), 1599-1607. doi: 10.5829/ije.2022.35.08b.16
  17. Marwan Adil Hassan, Mohd Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, and Heyam Hussein Shaalan, "Numerical Modeling for the Effect of Soil Type on Stability of Embankment." Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 7, (2022), 41-57. doi: 28991/CEJ-SP2021-07-04
  18. Divya Krishnan K., Swathi Krishna., and P.T Ravichandran, “Experimental Analysis on Settlement of Piled Raft System in Cohesionless Soil.”, Journal of Advance Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 10, No. 4, (2018), 1231-1236.
  19. Reul O., and Randolph M. F., “Design strategies for piled rafts subjected to non-uniform vertical loading.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 1, (2004), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:1(1)
  20. Plaban Deb, and Sujit Kumar Pal, “Numerical analysis of piled raft foundation under combined vertical and lateral loading.”, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 190, (2019), 1-13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.106431
  21. Vinil Kumar Gade, and S. M. Dasaka, “Assessment of Air Pluviation Using Stationary and Movable Pluviators.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 5, (2017), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001798
  22. Vinil Kumar Gade, and S. M. Dasaka, “Development of a Mechanized Traveling Pluviator to Prepare Reconstituted Uniform Sand Specimens.”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 2, (2016), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943 5533.0001396
  23. Gade V. K., Chauhan V. B., and Dasaka S. M., “Assessment of Pluviation Method of Sand Bed Preparation by Miniature Cone Penetration.”, Proceedings of the 50th Indian Geotechnical Conference, Pune, Maharashtra, India, (2015) 1-7.
  24. B. Umravia; C. H. Solanki, "Numerical Analysis to Study Lateral Behavior of Cement Fly Ash Gravel Piles under the Soft Soil.", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 35, No. 11, (2022), 2111-2119.
  25. Trudeep N. Dave, and S.M. Dasaka, “Assessment of Portable Travelling Pluviator to Prepare Reconstituted Sand Specimens.”, Geomechanics and Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, (2012), 79-90. DOI:10.12989/gae.2012.4.2.079
  26. Lee J, and Salgado R. “Determination of pile base resistance in sands.”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 125, No. 8, (1999), 673-683, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1999)125:8(673).
  27. Lee J, and Salgado R. “Estimation of bearing capacity of circular footings on sands based on cone penetration test.”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 131, No. 4, (2005), 442-452, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-23 0241(2005)131:4 (442).
  28. Cerato AB, and Lutenegger AJ. “Bearing capacity of square and circular footings on a finite layer of granular soil underlain by a rigid base.”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 11, (2006), 1496-501.