Experimental Study on Bonding CFRP to Fiber Concrete Beam Considering the Effect of using Nanographene Oxide in Improving the Mechanical Properties of Polyamine Resin

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran


This research examined the effect of nanographene oxide in enhancing the mechanical properties of polyamine resin for better adhesion of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) to a fiber-reinforced concrete beam. To this purpose, 33 fiber-reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with CFRP of lengths 50 cm, 35 cm, and 20 cm and widths 3 cm, 6 cm, and 10 cm were experimentally studied. Graphene oxide weight percentages of 1, 2, and 3 percent were considered, and the corresponding cases were compared with the case of a retrofitted beam without graphene oxide. According to the results of experiments on 12 of the beams, as the nanomaterial in the adhesive increases from 1 to 2 and 3%, the values of maximum load-carrying capacity, maximum mid-span deflection, beam stiffness, and beam toughness exhibited  46,19, 27, and 5 %, respectively, relative to the case of the beam reinforced with CFRP and without graphene oxide. Subsequently, given the close results of the beams reinforced with 2 and 3% graphene oxide. The 2% graphene oxide was used in the rest of the samples to investigate the effect changes in the number of layers, length, and width of the CFRP on the mechanical properties of the concrete beam. The results indicated that an increase in the number of layers, length, and width of CFRP results in an increase in the load-carrying capacity and deformability of the fiber-reinforced concrete beam


Main Subjects

  1. Shadmand, A. Hedayatnasab, and O. Kohnehpooshi, “Strengthening of RC beams using steel plate-fiber concrete composite jackets: Finite element simulation and experimental investigation,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 35, No. 1, (2022), 73-92, doi: 10.5829/ije.2022.35.01a.07.
  2. S. B. Rahimi, A. Jalali, S. M. Mirhosseini, and E. Zeighami, “Comparative experimental study of different types of fiber-reinforced polymer wrapping in repairing of reinforced concrete deep beams with circular openings,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 34, No. 8, (2021), 1961-1973, doi: 10.5829/ije.2021.34.08b.17.
  3. S. A. Abbas, I. F. Ali, and A. A. Abdulridha, “Behavior and strength of steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete columns wrapped by carbon fiber reinforced polymers strips,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 34, No. 2, (2021), 382-392, doi: 10.5829/IJE.2021.34.02B.10.
  4. S. Yousefi Khatuni and H. Showkati, “Buckling behavior of semi-scale steel tank with carbon fiber reinforced polymer ring subjected to lateral uniform pressure loading,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 32, No. 10, (2019), 1407-1415, doi: 10.5829/ije.2019.32.10a.10.
  5. M. B. S. Alferjani, A. A. A. Samad, B. S. Elrawaff, and N. Mohamad, “Experimental and Theoretical Investigation on Shear Strengthening of RC Precraced Continuous T-beams Using CFRP Strips,” International Journal of Engineering,, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 28, No. 5, (2015), 671-676. doi: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2015.28.05b.04
  6. A. A. Maghsudi and D. Y. Askari, “Ultimate unbonded tendon stress in CFRP strengthened post-tensioned indeterminate I-beams cast with HSCs,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 28, No. 3, (2015), 350-359, doi: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2015.28.03c.03.
  7. M. Shadmand, A. Hedayatnasab, and O. Kohnehpooshi, “Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Steel Fiber Reinforced Composite Jackets,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 33, No. 5, (2020), 770-783, doi: 10.5829/ije.2020.33.05b.08
  8. H. Dehghani and M. J. Fadaee, “Reliabilty-based Torsional Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 26, No. 10, (2013), 1103-1110, doi: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2013.26.10a.01.
  9. S. H. Hashemi, “Flexural Testing of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 22, No. 2, (2009), 131-146.
  10. M. Riyazi, M. R. Esfahani, and H. Mohammadi, “Behavior of Coupling Beams Strengthened With Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sheets,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 20, No. 1, (2007), 49-58.
  11. A. Agbossou, L. Michel, M. Lagache, and P. Hamelin, “Strengthening slabs using externally-bonded strip composites: Analysis of concrete covers on the strengthening,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 39, No. 7-8, (2008), 1125-1135, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2008.04.002.
  12. M. H. Mahmoud, H. M. Afefy, N. M. Kassem, and T. M. Fawzy, “Strengthening of defected beam-column joints using CFRP,” Journal of Advanced Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, (2014), 67-77, doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2012.11.007.
  13. R. V. S. Ramakrishna Ravindra, V., “Experimental Investigation on Rehabilitation of Reinforced Cement Concrete Interior Beam-Column Joints Using CFRP and GFRP Sheets,” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 3, (2012), 874-881.
  14. M. Hussain, A. Sharif, I. A. B. M. H. Baluch, and G. J. Al-Sulaimani, “Flexural behavior of precracked reinforced concrete beams strengthened externally by steel plates,” Structural Journal, Vol. 92, No. 1, (1995), 14-23.
  15. M. Z. Jumaat and M. A. Alam, “Behaviour of U and L shaped end anchored steel plate strengthened reinforced concrete beams,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, (2008), 184-196.
  16. M. Amir, C. Omar, B. Brahim, and N. Kenneth, “Performance of End-Anchorage Systems for RC Beams Strengthened in Shear with Epoxy-Bonded FRP,” Journal of Composites for Construction, Vol. 16, No. 3, (2012), 322-331, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000263.
  17. J.-W. Shi, W.-H. Cao, and B.-L. Xu, “Effect of liquid rubber modification on the bond behavior of externally bonded FRP laminate-concrete interface under dynamic loading,” Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 2, (2020), doi: 10.1016/j.jobe.2020.101533.
  18. M. R. Irshidat and M. H. Al-Saleh, “Effect of using carbon nanotube modified epoxy on bond-slip behavior between concrete and FRP sheets,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 105, No. 2, (2016), 511-518, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.12.183.
  19. X. Yao, X. Gao, J. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Deng, and J. Wang, “Comparison of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide coated carbon fiber for improving the interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 3, (2018), 170-177, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.09.012.
  20. M. R. Irshidat, N. Al-Nuaimi, and M. Rabie, “Influence of carbon nanotubes on phase composition, thermal and post-heating behavior of cementitious composites,” Molecules, Vol. 26, No. 4, (2021).
  21. E. Soliman, U. F. Kandil, and M. R. Taha, “Limiting shear creep of epoxy adhesive at the FRP-concrete interface using multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, Vol. 33, No. 4, (2012), 36-44.
  22. S. R. Abdullah, F. N. Rosli, N. Ali, N. A. Abd Hamid, and N. Salleh, “Modified Epoxy for Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening of Concrete Structures,” International Journal of Integrated Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 9, (2020), 103-113.
  23. M. R. Irshidat and M. H. Al-Saleh, “Flexural strength recovery of heat-damaged RC beams using carbon nanotubes modified CFRP,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 145, No. 6, (2017), 474-482.
  24. M. R. Irshidat, M. H. Al-Saleh, and H. Almashagbeh, “Effect of carbon nanotubes on strengthening of RC beams retrofitted with carbon fiber/epoxy composites,” Materials & Design, Vol. 89, No. 1, (2016), 225-234.
  25. H. Xu et al., “Evolution of properties and enhancement mechanism of large-scale three-dimensional graphene oxide-carbon nanotube aerogel/polystyrene nanocomposites,” Polymer Testing, Vol. 97, No. 2, (2021), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2021.107158.
  26. A. Sheikhmohammadi et al., “Application of graphene oxide modified with 8-hydroxyquinoline for the adsorption of Cr (VI) from wastewater: Optimization, kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, Vol. 233, No. 3, (2017), 75-88, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2017.02.101.
  27. L. Wei, X. Liu, Y. Gao, X. Lv, N. Hu, and M. Chen, “Synergistic strengthening effect of titanium matrix composites reinforced by graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes,” Materials & Design, Vol. 197, No. 4, (2021), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109261.
  28. H. Ashassi-Sorkhabi, B. Rezaei-Moghadam, E. Asghari, R. Bagheri, and R. Kabiri, “Sonoelectrosynthesized polypyrrole-graphene oxide nanocomposite modified by carbon nanotube and Cu2O nanoparticles on copper electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol,” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 69, No. 5, (2016), 118-130, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2016.08.026.
  29. V. Acar, F. Cakir, H. Uysal, M. O. Seydibeyoglu, H. Akbulut, and K. M. Mosalam, “Strengthening of concrete beams by monolayer prepreg composites with and without graphene reinforcement,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 151, No. 2, (2017), 866-880, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.06.150.
  30. X. Wang, F. Tang, X. Qi, and Z. Lin, “Mechanical, electrochemical, and durability behavior of graphene nano-platelet loaded epoxy-resin composite coatings,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 176, (2019), doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.107103.