Wheel Load Torque Emulation for Electric Propulsion Structure using Dual Induction Motors

Document Type : Research Note


1 LSP-IE’2000 Laboratory, Electrical Engineering department, University of Batna 2, 05000, Batna, Algeria

2 Health and Safety Institute, University of Batna 2, 53 route de Constantine, 05078, Batna, Algeria


Electric vehicle is an adaptation of conventional vehicle, with an integration of electrical motors. It seems to be one of the most promising technologies that can lead to significant improvements in vehicle performance and polluting emissions. However, for any vehicle in urban traffic requires regime changes, frequent acceleration, deceleration, and stopping phases, which lead to serious breakdowns. During the above phases, electric motors are continuously being exposed to thermal and mechanical effects.This paper highlights the possibility of representing the wheel load torque emulation of an electric propulsion structure using dual induction motors vector-controlled. The emulation of load torque acting on one of both electric motors placed at the rear wheels of electric vehicle (EV) structure is accomplished by a DC-generator coupled with an induction motor during vehicle drive cycle operation andunpredictable load profiles. Simulation results confirm widely the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed emulator scheme of induction motor-based vector-control in the electric vehicle application.


Main Subjects

  1. Shao, L., Karci, A.E.H., Tavernini, D., Sorniotti, A. and Cheng, M., "Design approaches and control strategies for energy-efficient electric machines for electric vehicles—a review", IEEE Access, Vol. 8, (2020), 116900-116913, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2993235.
  2. Anto, A. and Sreethumol, M., "Review of electric vehicles", in 2018 International Conference on Control, Power, Communication and Computing Technologies (ICCPCCT), IEEE. (2018), 392-398.
  3. Ehsani, M., Singh, K.V., Bansal, H.O. and Mehrjardi, R.T., "State of the art and trends in electric and hybrid electric vehicles", Proceedings of the IEEE, (2021), doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2021.3072788.
  4. Chan, C.C., Bouscayrol, A. and Chen, K., "Electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles: Architectures and modeling", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, No. 2, (2009), 589-598, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2009.2033605.
  5. Zhang, Z., Wang, L., Zhang, J. and Ma, R., "Study on requirements for load emulation of the vehicle with an electric braking system", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, No. 11, (2017), 9638-9653, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2017.2739425.
  6. Fajri, P., Prabhala, V.A.K. and Ferdowsi, M., "Emulating on-road operating conditions for electric-drive propulsion systems", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 31, No. 1, (2015), 1-11, doi: 10.1109/TEC.2015.2481180.
  7. Chandrasekaran, V., Sykora, B., Mishra, S. and Mohan, N., "A novel model based development of a motor emulator for rapid testing of electric drives", in 2020 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), IEEE. (2020), 2395-2402.
  8. Lei, B., Xiong, N., Li, S. and Ren, K., "An emulation system of dynamic mechanical loads based on dtc induction 110kw motor", in 2013 International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), IEEE. (2013), 519-522.
  9. Zha, H., Zong, Z., Jiang, N. and Liu, Z., "Implementation of space vector modulated direct torque controll for electric vehicle dynamic emulation", in 2010 International Conference on Computer, Mechatronics, Control and Electronic Engineering, IEEE. Vol. 4, (2010), 503-507.
  10. de Oliveira, C.M., de Aguiar, M.L., Guazzelli, P.R., de Castro, A.G., dos Santos, S.T. and Monteiro, J.R., "Analysis of the dynamic emulation problem for validation of position control algorithms in machine drives", in 2018 13th IEEE International Conference on Industry Applications (INDUSCON), IEEE. (2018), 1266-1273.
  11. Rodic̆, M., Jezernik, K. and Trlep, M., "Dynamic emulation of mechanical loads—position control approach", in Proceedings of 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference EPE-PEMC 2010, IEEE. (2010), S10-23-S10-30.
  12. Aiello, G., Scelba, G., Scarcella, G., Cacciato, M., Tornello, L., Palmieri, A., Vanelli, E., Pernaci, C. and Di Dio, R., "Real-time emulation of induction machines for hardware in the loop applications", in 2018 international symposium on power electronics, electrical drives, automation and motion (SPEEDAM), IEEE. (2018), 1340-1345.
  13. Taleires Filho, J., Correia, W.B., Aguiar, V.d.P.B. and Pontes, R.S.T., "Motor test bench control for load profile emulation", in IECON 2019-45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE. Vol. 1, (2019), 6663-6668.
  14. de Medeiros, L.O.C., Rodrigues, J.C.G., Rezek, A.J.J., de Oliveira Junior, N., Corrêa, R.D.L., Braga, A.V., Ogoulola, C.E.G., Silva, V.Z. and Ramos, M.L., "Implementation of a didactic platform for a generic load torque emulator using induction machines and pwm inverters", in 2019 IEEE 15th Brazilian Power Electronics Conference and 5th IEEE Southern Power Electronics Conference (COBEP/SPEC), IEEE. (2019), 1-6.
  15. Ahmadi, R., Fajri, P. and Ferdowsi, M., "Dynamic modeling and stability analysis of an experimental test bench for electric-drive vehicle emulation", in 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI), IEEE. (2013), 88-94.
  16. Rodic, M., Jezernik, K. and Trlep, M., "Use of dynamic emulation of mechanical loads in the testing of electrical vehicle driveline control algorithms", in 2007 European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, IEEE. (2007), 1-10.
  17. Marignetti, F., D'Aguanno, D. and Volpe, G., "Design and experiments of a test equipment for hybrid and electric vehicle drivetrains", in 2017 twelfth international conference on ecological vehicles and renewable energies (EVER), IEEE. (2017), 1-6.
  18. Xie, Q., Claudio Filho, H., Feng, G., Clandfield, W. and Kar, N.C., "Advanced vehicle dynamic model for ev emulation considering environment conditions", in 2017 IEEE 30th Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), IEEE. (2017), 1-4.
  19. Fajri, P., Lee, S., Prabhala, V.A.K. and Ferdowsi, M., "Modeling and integration of electric vehicle regenerative and friction braking for motor/dynamometer test bench emulation", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, No. 6, (2015), 4264-4273, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2015.2504363.
  20. Sehab, R. and Shanan, T., "Control laws for the emulation of an electric vehicle drivetrain by two electric machines", in 2013 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), IEEE. (2013), 1-7.
  21. Antal, D., Kiss, T., Szemes, P.T. and Husi, G., "Labview based dc motor dynamic load emulation testbed for testing rapid prototyping servo drives", in 2016 International Symposium on Small-scale Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (SIMS), IEEE. (2016), 105-110.
  22. Unni, A., Kumar, A.S., Manoj, R., Sunil, S. and VC, J.S., "Design and simulation of test-bed for of emulation electric vehicle dynamics", in 2021 Sixteenth International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), IEEE. (2021), 1-6.
  23. Ma, R., Wang, L. and Zhang, J., "Novel pi control algorithm for dynamic emulation of mechanical loads during transmission shift of electric vehicles", in 2019 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Automation, Electronics and Electrical Engineering (AUTEEE), IEEE. (2019), 234-240.
  24. Qinglong, W., Changzhou, Y. and Shuying, Y., "Indirect field oriented control technology for asynchronous motor of electric vehicle", in 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS), IEEE. (2020), 673-677.
  25. Xiao-Feng, X., Guo-Feng, L. and Rong-Tai, H., "A rotor field oriented vector control system for electric traction application", in ISIE'2000. Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (Cat. No. 00TH8543), IEEE. Vol. 1, (2000), 294-299.
  26. Ahallianath, K. and Beevi, W., "Indirect field oriented control of induction motor using predictive current controller", in 2015 International Conference on Control Communication & Computing India (ICCC), IEEE. (2015), 248-253.
  27. Benoudjit, D., Nait-Said, N. and Nait-Said, M., "Differential speed control of a propulsion system using fractional-order controller", Electromotion-Cluj Napoca-, Vol. 14, No. 2, (2007), 91.
  28. Yahia Cherif, S., Benoudjit, D., Nait-Said, M.S. and Nait-Said, N., "Comparative study between propulsion control system failures of an electrical vehicle piloted by foc and by dtc using dual-induction-motors structure", Diagnostyka, Vol. 21, (2020), https://doi.org/10.29354/diag/125307