Document Type : Original Article
Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Batter piles are the piles driven in the soil at an inclination with the vertical to withstand oblique loads or large horizontal loads and have been widely used to support high buildings, offshore buildings, and bridges. These constructions are risky because of the exposure to moments and overturning resulting from winds, waves, and ship impact. A 3D FEA using PLAXIS 3D software was used to investigate the effect of several variables that affect the behavior of single batter piles under pull-out loads. The study is achieved on a steel pipe pile model embedded in a dry sandy soil with three relative densities (loose, medium, and dense) at different inclination angles and three embedment ratios, L/D of 25, 37.5, and 50, respectively. The numerical results showed that the ultimate pull-out resistance of the battered pile raise as the battered angle increases reaches a maximum value, then decreases. The ultimate pull-out load capacity of a single battered pile is directly proportional to the slenderness ratio and relative density; the ultimate pull-out load increases with the increase in the ratio of slenderness and relative density. The ultimate uplift load of the battered pile was less affected by the free-standing length. Vertical and battered piles at a battered angle of (10ᵒ and 20ᵒ) and free-standing lengths equal to zero have higher ultimate pull-out capacity; by increasing the free-standing length, the ultimate pull-out capacity decreased.