Designing a Model for Creation of Export Consortiain Business Cluster

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Management, Faculty of Economics, Management and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Today, small and medium enterprises are considered as one of the main components of economic development for various reasons. To name a few, job creation, resource efficiency, the ability to enhance local technology, the ability to meet new needs, quick decision-making, and training successful managers will all lead to the growth and economic development of countries. Despite these benefits, small and medium enterprises face restrictions in areas such as human resources, specialist forces, and market access. To address these challenges, strategies need to be adopted to support and reinforce the enterprises. Creating a network of export consortium is one of the strategies that help providing a better access to the target market. In this study, first, we identified various dimensions in creating export consortiums and ranked them for small and medium enterprises. Second, based on the grounded theory research methodology, we proposed a model by examining the dimensions, components and categories affecting the establishment of successful export consortia. Accordingly, 26 subcategories are categorized into 6 main categories. Then, their relative importance in the success of the export consortia is determined by identifying the weights of each category and using the Hierarchical Analysis Method (AHP).


1. Minh, T.T. and C.N. Hjortsø, How Institutions Influence SME
Innovation and Networking Practices: The Case of V ietnamese
Agribusiness. Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 53,
(2015), 209-228. 
2. Nwankwo, S. and T. Gbadamosi, Entrepreneurship marketing:
principles and practice of SME marketing. (2010), Routledge. 
3. Hernández‐Linares, R., F.W. Kellermanns, and M.C. López‐
Fernández, Dynamic Capabilities and SME Performance: The
Moderating Effect of Market Orientation. Journal of Small
Business Management, (2018). 
4. Ireland, R.D., M.A. Hitt, and D. Vaidyanath, Alliance
management as a source of competitive advantage. Journal of
Management, Vol. 28, No. 3, (2002), 413-446. 
5. Delaney, L.J., Exporting Essentials: Selling Products and
Services to the World Successfully. (2014), Apress. 
6. UNIDO, Development of Clusters and Networks of SMEs: A
Guide to Export Consortia. (2003). 
7. Brown, P., R.B. McNaughton, and J. Bell, Marketing externalities
in industrial clusters: a literature review and evidence from the
Christchurch, New Zealand electronics cluster. Journal of
International Entrepreneurship, Vol. 8, No. 2, (2010), 168-181. 
8. Li, W., R. Veliyath, and J. Tan, Network characteristics and firm
performance: An examination of the relationships in the context
of a cluster. Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 51,
No. 1, (2013) 1-22. 
9. Lai, Y.-L., et al., The effects of industry cluster knowledge
management on innovation performance. Journal of Business
Research, Vol. 67, No. 5, 2014), 734-739. 
10. Tambunan, T., Promoting small and medium enterprises with a 
clustering approach: A policy experience from Indonesia.
Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 43, No. 2, (2005),
11. Gnyawali, D.R. and M.K. Srivastava, Complementary effects of
clusters and networks on firm innovation: A conceptual model.
Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 30,
No. 1, (2013), 1-20. 
12. Brachert, M., M. Titze, and A. Kubis, Identifying industrial
clusters from a multidimensional perspective: Methodical aspects
with an application to Germany. Papers in Regional Science, Vol.
90, No. 2, (2011), 419-439. 
13. Malmberg, A. and P. Maskell, The elusive concept of localization
economies: towards a knowledge-based theory of spatial
clustering. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space,
Vol. 34, No. 3, (2002), 429-449. 
14. Andadari, R.K., Local clusters in global value chains. 2008:
Rozenberg Publishers. 
15. Sohrabvandi, S., H. Gitinavard, and S. Ebrahimnezhad, A New
Extended Analytical Hierarchy Process Technique with
Incomplete Interval-valued Information for Risk Assessment in
IT Outsourcing. International Journal of Engineering,
Transaction B: Applications, Vol. 30, No. 5, (2017), 739-748. 
16. Moghimi, H., M. Sobhanollahi, and A. Ghodratnama, Analytic
network process based strategic planning for Iran’s trade
promotion organization. International Journal of Engineering,
Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 27, (2014), 1215-1222. 
17. Kaboli, A., Arianezhad, M., Shahanaghi, K. and TAVAKOLI,
M.R., A holistic approach based on MCDM for solving location
problems. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions
A: Basics, Vol. 20 No. 3, (2007), 251-262. 
18. Boroushaki, S. and J. Malczewski, Implementing an extension of
the analytical hierarchy process using ordered weighted averaging
operators with fuzzy quantifiers in ArcGIS. Computers &
Geosciences, Vol. 34, No. 4, (2008), 399-410. 
19. Saaty, T.L., Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process.
International Journal of Services Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1,
(2008), 83-98. 
20. Saaty, T.L. and L.G. Vargas, The seven pillars of the analytic
hierarchy process, in Models, methods, concepts & applications
of the analytic hierarchy process., Springer. (2012), 23-40. 
21. Larichev, O. and H. Moshkovich, ZAPROS-LM—a method and
system for ordering multiattribute alternatives. European
Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 82, No. 3, (1995), 503521.
22. Shin, M., Mo, J., Lee, K. and Lee, C., The Interval Selection and
Interpretation Of The Probabilistic AHP For Uncertain Decision
Making. International Journal of Industrial Engineering,  Vol.
24, No. 1, (2017). 
23. Pohekar, S. and M. Ramachandran, Application of multi-criteria
decision making to sustainable energy planning—a review.
Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, Vol. 8, No. 4, (2004),
24. Mirzaei, E., et al., Application of interval-valued fuzzy analytic
hierarchy process approach in selection cargo terminals, a case
study. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions C:
Aspects, Vol. 28, No. 3, (2015) 387-395. 
25. Tavakkoli, M.R., S. Mousavi, and M. Heydar, An Integrated
AHP-Vikormethodology For Plant Location Selection.
International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B:
Applications , Vol. 24, No. 2, (2011), 127-137. 
26. Saunders, M.N., Research methods for business students, 5/e.
2011: Pearson Education India. 
27. Wagner, S.M. and J.L. Johnson, Configuring and managing
strategic supplier portfolios. Industrial Marketing Management,
Vol. 33, No. 8, (2004), 717-730. 
28. Creswell, J.W. and C.N. Poth, Qualitative inquiry and research
design: Choosing among five approaches. (2017), Sage
29. Eaves, Y.D., A synthesis technique for grounded theory data
analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 35, No. 5, (2001),
30. McFerran, K.S. and S. Saarikallio, Depending on music to feel
better: Being conscious of responsibility when appropriating the
power of music. The Arts in Psychotherapy, Vol. 41, No. 1,
(2014), 89-97. 
31. Strauss, A. and J. Corbin, Basics of qualitative research:
techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Sage
Publications. Thousand Oaks, CA, (1998). 
32. Denzin, N.K. and Y.S. Lincoln, The Sage handbook of qualitative
research. (2011), Sage. 
33. Manuj, I. and T.L. Pohlen, A reviewer's guide to the grounded
theory methodology in logistics and supply chain management
research. International Journal of Physical Distribution &
Logistics Management, Vol. 42, No. 8/9, (2012), 784-803. 
34. Smith, K., A Grounded theory analysis of how college students
search for health information on the Internet: the case of
HIV/AIDS. 2008, University of South Carolina. 
35. Padgett, D., The qualitative research experience: Wadsworth.
Thomson Learning, (2004). 
36. Scott, H., Data analysis: Getting conceptual. The grounded theory
review, Vol. 8, No. 2, (2009), 89-112. 
37. Oktay, J.S., Grounded theory. 2012: Oxford University Press.
38. Hood, J.C., Orthodoxy vs. power: The defining traits of grounded 
theory. The Sage handbook of grounded theory, (2007), 151-164.
39. Kendall, J., Axial coding and the grounded theory controversy. 
Western Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 21, No. 6, (1999),
40. Bazargan, A., et al., An investigation of importance and
consideration of Human Resource Value Chain Measurement in
Saipa Industrial Group (Case study: Multiple) (in persian).
Iranian Business Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, (2015), 339-362.