Collapse Problem Treatment of Gypseous Soil by Nanomaterials

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Civil Engineering Department, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq

2 Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

Investigation of the effect of using nanomaterials for improving and Stabilizing the gypseous soil was carried out using laboratory works. The gypseous soils were collected from a site of intake in Bahar Al-Najaf and mixed with two types of nanomaterials (Nano-silica and, Nano-clay) where the nanomaterials were added in small amounts as a percent of the dry weight of the soil sample. Tests to determine the sieve analysis, specific gravity, and collapse potential were performed.  The results of the experimental work showed significant modification in the geotechnical properties of the soil sample. The collapse potential decreases as soon as the used nanomaterials were increased until they reach a percentage after which the collapse potential will be increased. Thus, addition of nanomaterials, even at a low percentage, could improve the properties of gypseous soil. When adding the nano-silica to the soil, the collapse potential (CP) is decreased whenever the nano-silica increases until 1% of the added nanomaterials and then further stabilizer increases the (CP), the percent of decrease in CP is about 91% where the effect of the additive (nano-silica) changes the classification of severity of collapse from “moderate trouble” case to “no problem” case.

Keywords


1.     AlNouri, I., and Saleam, S. “Compressibility Characteristics of Gypseous Sandy Soils.” Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, (1994), 465-474. https://doi.org/10.1520/gtj10307j
2.     Fattah, M. Y., Al-Ani, M. M., and Al-Lamy, M. T. A. “Treatment of collapse of gypseous soils by grouting.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, Vol. 166, No. 1, (2013), 32–43. https://doi.org/10.1680/grim.11.00020
3.     Ibrahim, A. N., and Schanz, T. “Improvement of Gypsiferous Soil Strength by Silicone Oil.” Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 54. (2017), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11204-017-9443-7
4. Verma, D. K. and Maheshwari, U. K., “Effect of Nano Silica on Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soil.” International Journal of Science and Research, Vol. 6, No. 12, (2017), 974–976. https://doi.org/10.21275/ART20178874.
5.     ASTM D-422, 2007: “Standard Test Methods for Particle-size Analysis of Soils”. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM international, West Conshohocken, PA.
6.     ASTM D854 (2010), “Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer”. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol.04.08, Philadelphia, P&A, ASTM, USA. Copyright, ASTM International, 10&0 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohock.
7.     Pells, P., Robertson, A., Jennings, J. E., and Knight, K. “A guide to construction on or with materials exhibiting additional settlement due to collapse of grain structure.” In Proceedings of 6th Regional Conference for Africa on soil mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Durban, South Africa, (1975), 99–105. Retrieved from https://trid.trb.org/view/41906
8.     ASTM D5333 (2018), “Standard Test Method for Measurement of Collapse Potential of Soils”. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol.04.08, Philadelphia, PA, ASTM, USA. Copyright, ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P&O Box C700, West Conshohocken, P&A 19428-2959, United States.
9.     Changizi, F., and Haddad, A. “Improving the geotechnical properties of soft clay with nano-silica particles.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, Vol. 170, No. 2, (2017), 62–71. https://doi.org/10.1680/jgrim.15.00026
10.   Ashour, M., Abbas, A., Altahrany, A., and Alaaeldin, A. “Modelling the behavior of inundated collapsible soils.” Engineering Reports, Vol. 2, No. 4, (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/eng2.12156