Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Porous TiO2 Scaffolds for Bone Defects

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biomedical engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Materials Engineering, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Isfahan, Iran


The purpose of this study was to fabricate and investigate the highly porous structure using titanium dioxide, which is a candidate for bone defect repairing. For this purpose, TiO2 scaffolds were synthesized using titanium butoxide, Pluronic F127 surfactant, and polyurethane foam blocks. Therefore, a colloid includes titanium butoxide and F127 and the polyurethane foams were immersed in it. The samples were annealed at different temperatures in the range of 500 to 600 ° C. The results of simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) test showed that volatile materials left the system completely when the temperature reached 550 ºC. Also small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) test revealed that these scaffolds composed of highly ordered mesoporous structures. The obtained scaffolds at 550 ºC had specific surface area of 85.736 m2g-1with the mean mesopore size of 7.0498 nm and macroporosity in the range of 100 to 350 μm. The presence of mesopores and their distribution were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The base scaffold was then immersed in a simulated body solution for 3,7and 14 days and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray. The results show its ability for apatite formation.