Stimuli-responsive Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Optimization, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of Biosorption

Document Type : Original Article


Materials and Energy Research Center, Meshkindasht, Karaj, Iran


Green nanotechnology with the goal of producing sustainable nanomaterials in an eco-friendly approach is becoming an increasing necessity for nanomanufacturing industries. In this regards, biosynthesis is well adopted as a viable method for producing benign nanoparticles for biomedical application. The present study aimed at optimization and study of the effects of external stimuli pH and gold ion concentration on the morphology of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the central composite design, the experimental method was developed at three levels of the operating parameters; the initial gold ion concentration, cell mass, and pH. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the obtained GNPs were impurity-free while the size and shape of particles were a function of the pH and Au3+ concentration. Also, analysis of variance revealed that the cell mass and initial gold ion concentration have a significant effect on biosynthesis of GNPs. The optimal condition was found at the initial gold ion concentration of 550 µM, pH 3.5, and cell mass of 0.047 mg/mL with the obtained gold uptake of 98.29%. Pseudo-second order kinetics model best fitted the experimental results with the activation energy of 73.8 kJ indicating that complex chemisorption is the mechanism of gold biorecovery. Adsorption equilibrium followed Freundlich adsorption model and negative ΔG value at room temperature suggested that the GNPs can be synthesized at ambient temperature and atmosphere via an eco-friendly and economically viable process.