Determination of Shock Standoff Distance for Wedge at Supersonic Flow

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Kanpur, India

2 School of Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia


An experimental investigation is conducted to calculate the shock standoff (SSO) distance in front of an acute-angled wedge. For this experimentation, simple water flows channel analysis is carried out. The flow velocity is varied from 13.2 cm/s to 25.5 cm/s increasing in steps of 1 cm/s. A velocity of 13.2 cm/s corresponds to Froude number 1.13 and velocity of 25.5 cm/s to Froude number 1.41. The Froude number ranged from 1.13 to 1.41 in steps of 0.04. The study is conducted on 5 mm thick acrylic sheets and of wedge angles 50°, 60°, and 75° to obtain a relation for calculating the SSO distance concerning the Froude number. It is found that the pressure uphill strongly depends upon the Fr and wedge angle. The SSO distance determined experimentally and using the proposed correlation are found to be in good agreement.


1. E. Rathakrishnan, Instrumentation, measurements, and
experiments in fluids. CRC Press, 2007.
2. Farris, M. H., and C. T. Russell. "Determining the standoff
distance of the bow shock: Mach number dependence and use of
models." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics,
Vol. 99, No. A9, (1994), 17681-17689.
3. T. Saito, K. Hatanaka, H. Yamashita, T. Ogawa, S.
Obayashi, and K. Takayama, “Shock stand-off distance of
a solid sphere decelerating in transonic velocity range,”
Shock Waves, Vol. 21, No. 5 (2011) 483–489.
4. T. Hashimoto, T. Komuro, K. Sato, and K. Itoh,
“Experimental investigation of shock stand-off distance on spheres in hypersonic nozzle flows,” Shock Waves, (2009),
5. K. Itoh et al., “Flow Characterization of High Enthalpy
Shock Tunnel Based on Shock Stand-off Distance,” in
International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and
Technologies Conference, (2009), 1–8.
6. S. Khurana, K. Suzuki, and E. Rathakrishnan, “Flow Field
around a Blunt-nosed Body with Spike,” International
Journal of Turbo Jet Engines, Vol. 29, (2012) 217–221.
7. S. Khurana and K. Suzuki, “Assessment of Aerodynamic
Effectiveness for Aerospike Application on Hypothesized
Lifting-Body in Hypersonic Flow,” in Fluid Dynamics and
Co-located Conferences, (2013), 24–27.
8. Cairns, Iver H., and J. G. Lyon. "Magnetic field orientation
effects on the standoff distance of Earth's bow
shock." Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 23, No. 21 (1996),
9. A. F. P. Houwing, S. Nonaka, and H. Mizuno, “Effects of
Vibrational Relaxation on Bow Shock Standoff Distance
for Nonequilibrium Flows,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 9,
(1999) 1760–1763,
10. S. Nonaka, H. Mizuno, K. Takayama, and C. Park,
“Measurement of Shock Standoff Distance for Sphere in
Ballistic Range,” Journal of Thermophysics and Heat
Transfer, Vol. 14, No. 2 (2000): 225-229.
11. J. Pattison, S. Celotto, A. Khan, and W. O. Neill, “Standoff
distance and bow shock phenomena in the Cold Spray
process,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 202, No. 8
(2008): 1443-1454.
12. T. Kikuchi, D. Numata, K. Takayama, and M. Sun, “Shock
stand-off distance over spheres flying at transonic speed
ranges in the air,” Shock Waves, (2009) 515–520.
13. D. Igra and J. Falcovitz, “Shock wave standoff distance for
a sphere slightly above Mach one,” Shock Waves, Vol. 20,
(2010), 441–444.
14. N. P. Savani, D. Shiota, K. Kusano, A. Vourlidas, and N.
Lugaz, “A study of the Heliocentric dependence of Shock
Standoff Distance and Geometry using 2. 5D MHD
Simulations of CME-driven shocks,” The Astrophysical
Journal, Vol. 759, No. 2, (2012), doi: 10.1088/0004637X/759/2/103.

15. F. Zander, R. J. Gollan, P. A. Jacobs, and R. G. Morgan,
“Hypervelocity shock standoff on spheres in air,” Shock
Waves, Vol. 24, (2014), 171–178.
16. J. Sinclair and X. Cui, “A theoretical approximation of the
shock standoff distance for supersonic flows around a
circular cylinder” Phys. Fluids, Vol. 29, (2017),
17. Wang, G., Yang, Y., Ma, X., Jiang, T., Gong, H. and Kong, R.,
"Prediction of Shock-Standoff Distance and Entropy
Distribution for Forward-Facing Cavity" International Journal
of Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 6 No. 3, (2018), 52-61.
18. N. Gopalswamy and S. Yashiro, “The Strength and Radian
Profile of the Coronal Magnetic Field from the Standoff
Distance of a Coronal Mass Ejection-Driven Shock” The
Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 736, (2011),
19. F. Zhang, T. Si, Z. Zhai, X. Luo, J. Yang, and X. Lu,
“Reflection of cylindrical converging shock wave over a
plane wedge,” Physics of Fluids, Vol. 28, (2016),
20. W. Poomvises, N. Gopalswamy, S. Yashiro, R. Kwon, and
O. Olmedo, “Determination of the Heliospheric radial
Magnetic Field from the Standoff Distance of a CMEDriven

Shock Observed by the Stereo Spacecraft,”