Simulation and Experimental Study of Vibration and Noise of Pure Electric Bus Transmission based on Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods

Document Type : Original Article


1 State Key Laboratory of Automobile Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun, China

2 Qingdao Automotive Research Institute, Jilin University, Qingdao, China


Since the electric motor of pure electric vehicle replaced the engine, the "masking effect" disappears, and the problem of vibration and noise of the transmission becomes prominent. This is generated during the gear meshing and is transmitted to the housing through the shaft and bearing. Thereby, radiation noise of the housing are generated. The prediction and analysis of the vibration and noise problems of transmission can be avoided during the design process, which will shorten the development cycle and reduce the development costs. In this paper, the finite element model and boundary element model of the three-axis four-speed automated mechanical transmission (AMT) for pure electric bus were established by Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) for modal and acoustic analysis. The excitation of the gear system is used as the input, and the direct boundary element method is used to predict the noise of the AMT. The correctness of the simulation method is verified by the comparing simulation with bench test results.


1. Palermo A, Britte L and Janssens K, “The measurement of Gear
Transmission Error as an NVH indicator: Theoretical discussion
and industrial application via low-cost digital encoders to an allelectric
vehicle gearbox”, Mechanical Systems and Signal
Processing, Vol. 110, (2018), 368-389.
2. S. Binbin and G. Song, “Parameters Design and Economy Study
of an Electric Vehicle with Powertrain Systems in Front and
Rear Axle”, International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 29,
No.4, (2016): 454-463.
3. M. Delkhosh and M. Saadat Foumani, “Modification of
Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for a Hybrid
Electric Vehicle”, International Journal of Engineering,
Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 29, No. 12, (2016): 1757-1764.
4. Kale G , Kulkarni M A and Arun S, “NVH challenges and
solutions to mitigate cabin noise in electric vehicles”, in IEEE
International Transportation Electrification Conference (ITEC).
IEEE, (2015).
5. Xiao H , Zhou X and Liu J, “Vibration transmission and energy
dissipation through the gear-shaft-bearing-housing system
subjected to impulse force on gear”, Measurement, Vol. 102,
64-79, (2017).
6. Fang Yuan, Zhang Tong and Yu Peng. “Joint simulation of
radiated noise of electric powertrain based on finite element
modeling and boundary element method”, Transaction of the
Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 21, (2014),
7. Zhang Qiang, “Dynamics characteristics analysis and
experimental study of a gearbox”, Chongqing University, (2014).
8. Kumar A , Jaiswal H and Jain R. “Free vibration and material
mechanical properties influence based frequency and mode
shape analysis of transmission gearbox casing”, Procedia
Engineering, Vol. 97, (2014), 1097-1106.
9. Kumar A and Patil P P. “FEA simulation and RSM based
parametric optimisation of vibrating transmission gearbox
housing”, Perspectives in Science, (2016), S2213020916301070.
10. Enrico Galvagno and Antonio Tota, “Mauro Velardocchia,
Alessandro Vigliani. Enhancing Transmission NVH
Performance through Powertrain Control Integration with Active
Braking System”, in SAE International Conference, Detroit,
USA, (2017).
11. Popov, Alexei P., and George Nerubenko. "Noise Reduction in
Novel Transmission with 3D Point Contact Gear System." SAE
International Journal of Engines, Vol. 8, No. 4 (2015): 17821789.
12. Zhou, Jianxing, Wenlei Sun and Li Cao, "Vibration and noise
characteristics of a gear reducer under different operation
conditions", Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and
Active Control, (2019), 1461348419825603.
13. Chen X , Song C and Zhu C, “Effects of macro-parameters on
vibration and radiation noise for high speed wheel gear
transmission in electric vehicles”, Journal of Mechanical
Science and Technology, Vol. 32, No. 9, (2018), 4153-4164.
14. G. Zaza and A. D. Hammoub, “Fault Detection Method on a
Compressor Rotor Using the Phase Variation of the Vibration
Signal”, International Journal of Engineering, Transactions
B: Applications, Vol. 30, No. 8, (2017), 1176-1181.