Microwave Ultrasound Assisted Extraction: Determination of Quercetin for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Iranian Propolis

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Science, Babol, Iran


Propolis was used as medicine, cosmetic and beverage additives since past decades. The most important active compounds in the propolis are phenolic and flavonoids, which are in the resin category. The purpose of this study was to measure the total amount of flavonoids and quercetin in propolis of northern Iran and compare obtain data with different extraction methods. The soxhlet, maceration and microwave-ultrasound-assisted extraction (MUAE) were conducted for comparison of the extraction efficiency. Total amount of flavonoids measured by Spectrophotometry and the amount of quercetin were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Here in this work, the best extraction yield for the total flavonoids was obtained 70.88 % and for quercetin was 44.53% at 300 W, 1.5 min for microwave and ultrasound 10 min and 40 °C. Also extraction yield of quercetin for soxhlet (as reference method) was determined 67.85% and for maceration was 13.9%. UV-vis, HPLC and FTIR analyses were used to determine the extraction yield and chemical structure of the active compounds. Then antioxidant and antibacterial effects of propolis extract were evaluated and the obtained results were compared with the related literature.


Main Subjects

Kasote, D.M., Pawar, M.V., Bhatia, R.S., Nandre, V.S., Gundu,
S.S., Jagtap, S.D. and Kulkarni, M.V., "Hplc, nmr based chemical
profiling and biological characterisation of indian propolis",
Fitoterapia,  Vol. 122, (2017), 52-60. 
2. Ristivojević, P ,.Dimkić, I., Guzelmeric, E., Trifković, J.,
Knežević, M., Berić, T., Yesilada, E., Milojković-Opsenica, D.
and Stanković, S., "Profiling of turkish propolis subtypes:
Comparative evaluation of their phytochemical compositions,
antioxidant and antimicrobial activities", LWT, Vol. 95, 
(2018),  367-379; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.04.063. 
3. Kunrath, C.A., Savoldi, D.C., Mileski, J.P.F., Novello, C.R.,
Alfaro, A.d.T., Marchi, J.F. and Tonial, I.B., "Application and
evaluation of propolis, the natural antioxidant in italian-type
salami", Brazilian Journal of Food Technology,  Vol. 20,
(2017); http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1981-6723.3516. 
4. Popova, M., Giannopoulou, E., Skalicka-Woźniak, K., Graikou,
K., Widelski, J., Bankova, V., Kalofonos, H., Sivolapenko, G.,
Gaweł-Bęben, K. and Antosiewicz, B., "Characterization and
biological evaluation of propolis from poland", Molecules,  Vol.
5. Cook, N. and Samman, S., "Flavonoids—chemistry, metabolism,
cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources", The Journal of
Nutritional Biochemistry,  Vol. 7, No. 2, (1996), 66-76. 
6. Havsteen, B.H., "The biochemistry and medical significance of
the flavonoids", Pharmacology & Therapeutics,  Vol. 96, No. 23,
7. Nijveldt, R.J., Van Nood, E., Van Hoorn, D.E., Boelens, P.G.,
Van Norren, K. and Van Leeuwen, P.A., "Flavonoids: A review
of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications–",
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,  Vol. 74, No. 4,
(2001), 418-425. 
8. Pellati, F., Prencipe, F.P., Bertelli, D. and Benvenuti, S., "An
efficient chemical analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in 
raw propolis by microwave-assisted extraction combined with
high-performance liquid chromatography using the fused-core
technology", Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical
Analysis,  Vol. 81, (2013), 126-132. 
9. Pujirahayu, N., Ritonga, H. and Uslinawaty, Z., "Properties and
flavonoids content in propolis of some extraction method of raw
propolis", International Journal of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Science,  Vol. 6, (2014), 338-340. 
10. Luo, C., Zou, X., Li, Y., Sun, C., Jiang, Y. and Wu, Z.,
"Determination of flavonoids in propolis-rich functional foods by
reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with
diode array detection", Food Chemistry,  Vol. 127, No. 1, (2011),
11. Aminimoghadamfarouj, N. and Nematollahi, A., "Propolis
diterpenes as a remarkable bio-source for drug discovery
development: A review", International Journal of Molecular
12. Pietta, P., Gardana, C. and Pietta, A., "Analytical methods for
quality control of propolis ,"Fitoterapia,  Vol. 73, (2002), S7-S20. 
13. Azmir, J., Zaidul, I., Rahman, M., Sharif, K., Mohamed, A.,
Sahena, F., Jahurul, M., Ghafoor, K., Norulaini, N. and Omar, A.,
"Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant
materials: A review ,"Journal of Food Engineering,  Vol. 117,
No. 4, (2013), 426-436. 
14. Nourbakhsh Amiri, Z., Najafpour, G., Mohammadi, M. and
Moghadamnia, A., "Subcritical water extraction of bioactive
compounds from ginger (zingiber officinale roscoe)",
International Journal of Engineering, Transactios C: Aspects, 
Vol. 31, No. 12, (2018), 1991-2000. 
15. Safdar, M.N., Kausar, T., Jabbar, S., Mumtaz, A., Ahad, K. and
Saddozai, A.A., "Extraction and quantification of polyphenols
from kinnow (citrus reticulate l.) peel using ultrasound and
maceration techniques", Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 
Vol. 25, No. 3, (2017), 488-500. 
16. Sahne, F., Mohammadi, M., Najafpour, G.D. and Moghadamnia,
A.A., "Extraction of bioactive compound curcumin from turmeric
(curcuma longa l.) via different routes: A comparative study",
Pakistan Journal of Biotechnoogyl. Vol,  Vol. 13, No. 3, (2016),
17. Marić, M., Grassino, A.N., Zhu, Z., Barba, F.J., Brnčić, M. and
Brnčić, S.R., "An overview of the traditional and innovative
approaches for pectin extraction from plant food wastes and byproducts: Ultrasound-, microwaves-, and enzyme-assisted
extraction", Trends in Food Science & Technology,  Vol. 76,
(2018) ,28-37. 
18. Chemat, F., Rombaut, N., Meullemiestre, A., Turk, M., Perino,
S., Fabiano-Tixier, A.-S. and Abert-Vian, M" ,.Review of green
food processing techniques. Preservation, transformation, and
extraction", Innovative Food Science & Emerging
Technologies,  Vol. 41, No., (2017), 357-377. 
19. Lu, L.-C., Chen, Y.-W. and Chou, C.-C., "Antibacterial activity
of propolis against staphylococcus aureus", International
Journal of Food Microbiology,  Vol. 102, No. 2, (2005), 213220.
20. Apaydin, H. and Gümüş, T., "Inhibitory effect of propolis (bee
gum) against staphylococcus aureus bacteria isolated from instant
soups 1", Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty,  Vol. 15,
No. 1, (2018), 67-75. 
21. Trusheva, B., Trunkova, D. and Bankova, V., "Different
extraction methods of biologically active components from
propolis: A preliminary study", Chemistry Central Journal,  Vol. 
1 ,No. 1, (2007), 13; https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-1-13.
22. Anđelković, B., Vujisić, L., Vučković, I., Tešević, V., Vajs, V. 
and Gođevac, D., "Metabolomics study of populus type propolis",
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis,  Vol. 135,
(2017), 217-226. 
23. Chang, C.-C., Yang, M.-H., Wen, H.-M. and Chern, J.-C.,
"Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two
complementary colorimetric methods", Journal of Food and
Drug Analysis,  Vol. 10, No. 3, (2002),178-182. 
24. Biscaia, Danielle, and Sandra RS Ferreira. "Propolis extracts
obtained by low pressure methods and supercritical fluid
extraction." The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Vol. 51, No. 1,
(2009), 17-23.