Fabrication of Nanoporous Functionalized Hydroxyapatite as High Performance Adsorbent for Acid Blue 25 Dye Removal


1 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

2 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran


In this study, nanoporous hydroxyapatite was synthesized and functionalized via tetraethylenepentamine in order to obtain a novel adsorbent for efficient removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from aqueous solution. Functionalized hydroxyapatite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and N2 adsorption-desorption. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature. The results illustrated that dye removal percentage was reduced with incrementing pH of the solution and dye concentration. Maximum removal of Acid Blue 25 in the solution having an initial dye concentration of 40 mg/L using 10 mg of adsorbent at 25 °C was 88%. Experimental kinetic data obeyed the pseudo second order model was appointed in 180 min. The Freundlich isotherm model also represented a suitable fit with adsorption data. The thermodynamic study was indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Results confirmed that FHAp adsorbent possesses the potential to be used as a suitable candidate for Acid Blue 25 Dye removal from aqueous solutions.


1.     Anbia, M. and Ghaffari, A., "Modified nanoporous carbon material for anionic dye removal from aqueous solution", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 25, No. 4, (2012), 259-268.
2.     Ajemba, R., "Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solution using activated ntezi clay: Optimization, isotherm and kinetic studies", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions C: Aspects,  Vol. 27, No. 6, (2013), 839-854.
3.     Al-Momani, F., Touraud, E., Degorce-Dumas, J., Roussy, J. and Thomas, O., "Biodegradability enhancement of textile dyes and textile wastewater by vuv photolysis", Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry,  Vol. 153, No. 1-3, (2002), 191-197.
4.     Ruthiraan, M., Abdullah, E., Mubarak, N. and Nizamuddin, S., "Adsorptive removal of methylene blue using magnetic biochar derived from agricultural waste biomass: Equilibrium, isotherm, kinetic study", International Journal of Nanoscience,  Vol. 17, No. 05, (2018), 1850002.
5.     Omidi-Khaniabadi, Y., Kamarehei, B., Nourmoradi, H., Goudarzi, G., Jourvand, M., Basiri, H. and Heidari, S., "Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-modified montmorillonite as a low-cost sorbent for the removal of methyl red from liquid-medium", IJE transactions A: basics,  Vol. 29, No. 1, (2016), 60-67.
6.     Kousha, M., Daneshvar, E., Esmaeli, A., Jokar, M. and Khataee, A., "Optimization of acid blue 25 removal from aqueous solutions by raw, esterified and protonated jania adhaerens biomass", International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation,  Vol. 69, No., (2012), 97-105.
7.     Hanafiah, M.A.K.M., Ngah, W.S.W., Zolkafly, S.H., Teong, L.C. and Majid, Z.A.A., "Acid blue 25 adsorption on base treated shorea dasyphylla sawdust: Kinetic, isotherm, thermodynamic and spectroscopic analysis", Journal of Environmental Sciences,  Vol. 24, No. 2, (2012), 261-268.
8.     Yang, Y., Jin, D., Wang, G., Liu, D., Jia, X. and Zhao, Y., "Biosorption of acid blue 25 by unmodified and cpc-modified biomass of penicillium yw01: Kinetic study, equilibrium isotherm and ftir analysis", Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces,  Vol. 88, No. 1, (2011), 521-526.
9.     Auta, M. and Hameed, B., "Preparation of waste tea activated carbon using potassium acetate as an activating agent for adsorption of acid blue 25 dye", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 171, No. 2, (2011), 502-509.
10.   Daneshvar, E., Sohrabi, M.S., Kousha, M., Bhatnagar, A., Aliakbarian, B., Converti, A. and Norrström, A.-C., "Shrimp shell as an efficient bioadsorbent for acid blue 25 dye removal from aqueous solution", Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers,  Vol. 45, No. 6, (2014), 2926-2934.
11.   Guiso, M.G., Biesuz, R., Vilariño, T., López-García, M., Rodríguez Barro, P. and Sastre de Vicente, M.E., "Adsorption of the prototype anionic anthraquinone, acid blue 25, on a modified banana peel: Comparison with equilibrium and kinetic ligand–receptor biochemical data", Industrial & Engineering chemistry research,  Vol. 53, No. 6, (2014), 2251-2260.
12.   Prabhu, S.M. and Meenakshi, S., "Synthesis of surface coated hydroxyapatite powders for fluoride removal from aqueous solution", Powder Technology,  Vol. 268, No., (2014), 306-315.
13.   Yang, L., Wei, Z., Zhong, W., Cui, J. and Wei, W., "Modifying hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with humic acid for highly efficient removal of cu (ii) from aqueous solution", Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects,  Vol. 490, No., (2016), 9-21.
14.   Le, Y., Guo, D., Cheng, B. and Yu, J., "Amine-functionalized monodispersed porous silica microspheres with enhanced co2 adsorption performance and good cyclic stability", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science,  Vol. 408, No., (2013), 173-180.
15.   Skwarek, E., Janusz, W., Gun’ko, V., Pakhlov, E., Zarko, V. and Gdula, K., "Characteristics of surface and electrochemical properties of composites with fumed metal oxides and hydroxyapatite", Adsorption,  Vol. 22, No. 4-6, (2016), 725-734.
16.   Mobasherpour, I., Heshajin, M.S., Kazemzadeh, A. and Zakeri, M., "Synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by using precipitation method", Journal of Alloys and Compounds,  Vol. 430, No. 1-2, (2007), 330-333.
17.   Abidi, S.S.A. and Murtaza, Q., "Synthesis and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite powder using wet chemical precipitation reaction", Journal of Materials Science & Technology,  Vol. 30, No. 4, (2014), 307-310.
18.   Sharma, R., Pandey, R.R., Gupta, A.A., Kar, S. and Dhayal, M., "In situ amino acid functionalization and microstructure formation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized at different ph by precipitation route", Materials Chemistry and Physics,  Vol. 133, No. 2-3, (2012), 718-725.
19.   Bakhtiari, L., Javadpour, J., Rezaie, H.R., Erfan, M., Mazinani, B. and Aminian, A., "Pore size control in the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: The effect of pore expander content and the synthesis temperature", Ceramics International,  Vol. 42, No. 9, (2016), 11259-11264.
20.   Vila, M., Sánchez-Salcedo, S., Cicuéndez, M., Izquierdo-Barba, I. and Vallet-Regí, M., "Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water", Journal of Hazardous Materials,  Vol. 192, No. 1, (2011), 71-77.
21.   He, W., Li, Z., Wang, Y., Chen, X., Zhang, X., Zhao, H., Yan, S. and Zhou, W., "Synthesis of mesoporous structured hydroxyapatite particles using yeast cells as the template", Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine,  Vol. 21, No. 1, (2010), 155-159.
22.   Nandi, B., Goswami, A. and Purkait, M., "Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by kaolin: Kinetic and equilibrium studies", Applied Clay Science,  Vol. 42, No. 3-4, (2009), 583-590.
23.   Dahri, M., Lim, L., Priyantha, N. and Chan, C., "Removal of acid blue 25 using cempedak durian peel from aqueous medium: Isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics studies", International Food Research Journal,  Vol. 23, No. 3, (2016), 1154-1163.
24.   Bulut, Y. and Aydın, H., "A kinetics and thermodynamics study of methylene blue adsorption on wheat shells", Desalination,  Vol. 194, No. 1-3, (2006), 259-267.
25.   Khalid, K., Ngah, W.S., Hanafiah, M.A., Malek, N.S. and Khazaai, S.N., "Acid blue 25 adsorption onto phosphoric acid treated rubber leaf powder", American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Vol. 5, No. 3A, (2015), 19-25.