Hopper Wall Simulation in ANSYS to Determine Displacement Due to Single Ball Impact


1 Mechanical Engineering Depatment, Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


Deformation of the silo wall due to the single ball impact is modeled in ANSYS. The material in silo, as a Winkler bed, is replaced by spring-damper elements and the spring stiffness and damper coefficients are evaluated of the granular material and wall properties. The granular material deformation under the specified force is measured to evaluate the granular stiffness to be used for determining the appropriate spring stiffness in ANSYS model. Geometrical parameters and boundary conditions are set according to the properties of a laboratory silo containing magnetite concentrate. Effects of impact parameters including the ball size and the impact position on the hopper displacement are taken into account. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data confirms that the wall displacement is an indicator of the ability of impact to solve obstruction. Simulation will be an alternative to expensive and time consuming experimental procedures for specifying the optimal impacts for obstruction solution.  


1.     Maynard, E.P., "Practical solutions for solving bulk solids flow problems", in Cement Industry Technical Conference, 2004. IEEE-IAS/PCA, IEEE., (2004), 139-147.
2.     Akhondizadeh, M. and Khalili, V., "Effect of material wet on silo obstruction solution by impact", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 29, No. 11, (2016), 1628-1635.
3.     Nazhat, Y. and Airey, D., "The kinematics of granular soils subjected to rapid impact loading", Granular Matter,  Vol. 17, No. 1, (2015), 1-20.
4.     Ding, S. and Enstad, G.G., "Stress distribution in the material and development of loads on the wall during hopper filling", Task Quarterly,  Vol. 7, No. 4, (2003), 513-524.
5.     R, K. and M, M., "Dem simulations of loads on obstruction attached to the wall of a model grain silo and of flow disturbance around the obstruction", Powder Technology,  Vol. 30, No. 256, (2014 ), 210-216.
6.     YZ, Z., SP, M. and WW., S., "Lateral pressure in squat silos under eccentric discharge. World academy of science, engineering and technology", International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering,  Vol. 6, No. 7, (2012 ), 448-456.
7.     M, K. and M., M., "Experimental and design loads of pressure of bulk materials against silo wall", in In Symposium of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (50th. 2009. Valencia), Evolution and Trends in Design, Analysis and Construction of Shell and Spatial Structures, Politècnica de València., (2009).
8.     N, G. and G., G., "Development of winkler model for static and dynamic response of caisson foundations with soil and interface nonlinearities", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,  Vol. 26, No. 5, (2006 ), 363-376.
9.     F, N. and M., Y., "Seismic behavior of silos with different height to diameter ratios considering granular material-structure interaction", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Application,  Vol. 25, No. 1, (2012 ), 27-38.
10.   M, A., M, K. and V., K., "Experimental determination of the optimum ball impacts for solution of silo obstruction (research note)", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 30, No. 8, (2017 ), 1215-1222.
11.   ChaseGG., "Solids notes", The University of Akron,  (2006).
12.   S, L., K, K., E, S. and M., K., "Nonlinear winkler-based beam element with improved displacement shape functions", KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering,  Vol. 17, No. 1, (2013 ), 192-201.
13.   MD, B. and JM., W., "Soil stiffness and damping", in, Cambridge University, Engineering Department. Vol., No. Issue, (1990 of Conference).
14.   J.E., B., "Foundation analysis and design, ed. 5th, McGraw-Hill, Singapore,  (1996).
15.   Lundgreen, C.C., " Damping ratios for laterally loaded pile groups in fine grained soils and improved soils", in, Brigham Young University., (2010).