Effect of Carbon Nanotube and Surfactant on Processing, Mechanical, Electrical and EMI-Shielding of Epoxy Composites


Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran


Dispersing nanoparticles in a polymer matrix is intrinsically challenging due to unfavorable entropic interactions between the matrix and the nanoparticle. In this research dispersion of nanoparticles in polymer matrix was studied and the effect of dispersion on properties was investigated. The properties of polymer composite depend on the type, size, shape, concentration of nanoparticles, and interactions of polymer-nanaoparticle. The lack of compatibility between inorganic particles and polymer matrix limits the applications of produced nanocomposite. Due to incompatibility, the dispersion of nanoparticles in polymer matrix is very difficult. The epoxy/MWCNT composite was fabricated by solution mixing process. The effect of MWCNT and Amine-Functionalized surfactant, on curing process, EMI-shielding, mechanical and electrical properties of nanocomposite were investigated. Dispersion of MWCNT in solution was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. Curing behavior of nanocomposites at different MWCNT loadings was investigated. EMI-shielding of nanocomposite at different concentrations of MWCNT was studied and the results showed that MWCNT and ferric oxide improve absorption loss, reflection loss and shielding effectiveness. Effect of MWCNT inclusion on thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites was investigated. Finally, the electrical conductivity was measured using a two-point conductivity test method.


1.     Moniruzzaman, M. and Winey, K.I., "Polymer nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes", Macromolecules,  Vol. 39, No. 16, (2006), 5194-5205.
2.     Ramanathan, T., Abdala, A., Stankovich, S., Dikin, D., Herrera-Alonso, M., Piner, R., Adamson, D., Schniepp, H., Chen, X. and Ruoff, R., "Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites", Nature Nanotechnology,  Vol. 3, No. 6, (2008), 327.
3.     Abdalla, M., Dean, D., Adibempe, D., Nyairo, E., Robinson, P. and Thompson, G., "The effect of interfacial chemistry on molecular mobility and morphology of multiwalled carbon nanotubes epoxy nanocomposite", Polymer,  Vol. 48, No. 19, (2007), 5662-5670.
4.     Yoonessi, M., Lebrón-Colón, M., Scheiman, D. and Meador, M.A., "Carbon nanotube epoxy nanocomposites: The effects of interfacial modifications on the dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposites", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces,  Vol. 6, No. 19, (2014), 16621-16630.
5.     Khare, K.S. and Khare, R., "Effect of carbon nanotube dispersion on glass transition in cross-linked epoxy–carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Role of interfacial interactions", The Journal of Physical Chemistry B,  Vol. 117, No. 24, (2013), 7444-7454.
6.     De Volder, M.F., Tawfick, S.H., Baughman, R.H. and Hart, A.J., "Carbon nanotubes: Present and future commercial applications", Science,  Vol. 339, No. 6119, (2013), 535-539.
7.     Baughman, R.H., Zakhidov, A.A. and De Heer, W.A., "Carbon nanotubes--the route toward applications", Science,  Vol. 297, No. 5582, (2002), 787-792.
8.     Thostenson, E.T., Ren, Z. and Chou, T.-W., "Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: A review", Composites Science and Technology,  Vol. 61, No. 13, (2001), 1899-1912.
9.     Gardea, F. and Lagoudas, D.C., "Characterization of electrical and thermal properties of carbon nanotube/epoxy composites", Composites Part B: Engineering,  Vol. 56, (2014), 611-620.
10.   Garg, P., Singh, B.P., Kumar, G., Gupta, T., Pandey, I., Seth, R., Tandon, R. and Mathur, R.B., "Effect of dispersion conditions on the mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes based epoxy resin composites", Journal of Polymer Research,  Vol. 18, No. 6, (2011), 1397-1407.
11.   Vaisman, L., Wagner, H.D. and Marom, G., "The role of surfactants in dispersion of carbon nanotubes", Advances in Colloid and Interface Science,  Vol. 128, (2006), 37-46.
12.   Mohammadizadeh, M. and Yousefi, A.A., "Deposition of conductive polythiophene film on a piezoelectric substrate: Effect of corona poling and nano-inclusions", Iranian Polymer Journal,  Vol. 25, No. 5, (2016), 415-422.
13.   Mohammadizadeh, M., Pourabbas, B., Mahmoodian, M., Foroutani, K. and Fallahian, M., "Facile and rapid production of conductive flexible films by deposition of polythiophene nanoparticles on transparent poly (ethyleneterephthalate): Electrical and morphological properties", Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing,  Vol. 20,  (2014), 74-83.
14.   Foroutani, K., Pourabbas, B., Sharif, M., Fallahian, M., Khademi, S. and Mohammadizadeh, M., "In situ deposition of polythiophene nanoparticles on flexible transparent films: Effect of the process conditions", Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing,  Vol. 19, (2014), 57-65.
15.   Foroutani, K., Pourabbas, B., Sharif, M., Mohammadizadeh, M., Fallahian, M. and Khademi, S., "Preparation of conductive flexible films by in situ deposition of polythiophene nanoparticles on polyethylene naphthalate", Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing,  Vol. 18, (2014), 6-14.
16.   Mohammadizadeh, M., Pourabbas, B., Foroutani, K. and Fallahian, M., "Conductive polythiophene nanoparticles deposition on transparent pet substrates: Effect of modification with hybrid organic-inorganic coating", International Journal of Engineering Transaction A Basics,  Vol. 28, (2015), 567-572.
17.   Bar-Hen, A., Bounioux, C., Yerushalmi-Rozen, R., Solveyra, E.G. and Szleifer, I., "The role of steric interactions in dispersion of carbon nanotubes by poly (3-alkyl thiophenes) in organic solvents", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science,  Vol. 452, No., (2015), 62-68.
18.   Yang, M., Koutsos, V. and Zaiser, M., "Interactions between polymers and carbon nanotubes: A molecular dynamics study", The Journal of Physical Chemistry B,  Vol. 109, No. 20, (2005), 10009-10014.
19.   Giulianini, M., Waclawik, E.R., Bell, J.M., Scarselli, M., Castrucci, P., De Crescenzi, M. and Motta, N., "Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of poly (3-hexylthiophene) interaction with carbon nanotubes", Polymers,  Vol. 3, No. 3, (2011), 1433-1446.
20.   Chung, D., "Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of carbon materials", Carbon,  Vol. 39, No. 2, (2001), 279-285.
21.   Li, N., Huang, Y., Du, F., He, X., Lin, X., Gao, H., Ma, Y., Li, F., Chen, Y. and Eklund, P.C., "Electromagnetic interference (emi) shielding of single-walled carbon nanotube epoxy composites", Nano Letters,  Vol. 6, No. 6, (2006), 1141-1145.
22.   Matarredona, O., Rhoads, H., Li, Z., Harwell, J.H., Balzano, L. and Resasco, D.E., "Dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions of the anionic surfactant naddbs", The Journal of Physical Chemistry B,  Vol. 107, No. 48, (2003), 13357-13367.
23.   Strano, M.S., Moore, V.C., Miller, M.K., Allen, M.J., Haroz, E.H., Kittrell, C., Hauge, R.H. and Smalley, R., "The role of surfactant adsorption during ultrasonication in the dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes", Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology,  Vol. 3, No. 1-2, (2003), 81-86.
24.   Yang, K., Gu, M., Jin, Y., Mu, G. and Pan, X., "Influence of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes on cure behavior of epoxy nanocomposites", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing,  Vol. 39, No. 10, (2008), 1670-1678.
25.   Hauptman, N., Gunde, M.K., Kunaver, M. and Bešter-Rogač, M., "Influence of dispersing additives on the conductivity of carbon black pigment dispersion", Journal of Coatings Technology and Research,  Vol. 8, No. 5, (2011), 553-561.
26.   Zhang, J., Wu, X., Guo, C., Yang, L., Gao, X. and Xia, H., "Electrical properties of isotactic polypropylene/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites prepared by vibration injection molding", Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B,  Vol. 50, No. 11, (2011), 2193-2202.