Prospect of Emission Reduction Standard for Sustainable Port Equipment Electrification


1 Faculty of Engineering, Technology and Built Environment, University College Sedaya International (UCSI), Malaysia

2 Department of Ocean and Offshore Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor, Malaysia


Despite efficient carbon monitoring system and the commercialization of battery technology for intra-port transportation, port management are found not adopting these environmental yet costly equipments. Port authority who regulates environmental policies lacks leverage to impose tangible reduction on emission through concession. This model integrates sustainability into port equipment expansion theory by quantifying viable equipment electrification profile while observing the constraints of operation, cost and environment. A benchmark emission reduction standard (ERS) is surveyed by Delphi method as environmental demand to determine the electrification of port equipments. The results from Port of Tanjung Pelepas case study suggest an ERS implemented lower than 4% reduction a year is viable to retrofit and replace all electric rubber-tired gantries and prime movers. The simulation model allows informed decision for all port agents to establish viable environmental policies for sustainable port operations.


1.     Davarzani, H., Fahimnia, B., Bell, M. and Sarkis, J., "Greening ports and maritime logistics: A review", Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment,  Vol. 48, (2016), 473-487.
2.     Dedinec, A., Markovska, N., Taseska, V., Duic, N. and Kanevce, G., "Assessment of climate change mitigation potential of the macedonian transport sector", Energy,  Vol. 57, (2013), 177-187.
3.     Yang, Y.-C. and Chang, W.-M., "Impacts of electric rubber-tired gantries on green port performance", Research in Transportation Business & Management,  Vol. 8, (2013), 67-76.
4.     Adams Lopez, T., Electric truck demonstration project fact sheet. 2008, Port of Los Angeles.
5.     Hartman, B.C. and Clott, C.B., "An economic model for sustainable harbor trucking", Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment,  Vol. 17, No. 5, (2012), 354-360.
6.     Lucas, A., Silva, C.A. and Neto, R.C., "Life cycle analysis of energy supply infrastructure for conventional and electric vehicles", Energy Policy,  Vol. 41, (2012), 537-547.
7.     Calstart, I., I-710 project zero-emission truck commercialization study final report. 2013, Pasadena.
8.     Lam, J.S.L. and Notteboom, T., "The greening of ports: A comparison of port management tools used by leading ports in asia and europe", Transport Reviews,  Vol. 34, No. 2, (2014), 169-189.
9.     Novaes, A.G., Scholz-Reiter, B., Silva, V.M.D. and Rosa, H., "Long-term planning of a container terminal under demand uncertainty and economies of scale", Pesquisa Operacional,  Vol. 32, No. 1, (2012), 55-86.
10.   Tsinker, G.P., "Port engineering: Planning, construction, maintenance, and security, John Wiley & Sons,  (2004).
11.   Geerlings, H. and Van Duin, R., "A new method for assessing co2-emissions from container terminals: A promising approach applied in rotterdam", Journal of Cleaner Production,  Vol. 19, No. 6-7, (2011), 657-666.
12.   Moller), A.A.P. Apm terminals to retrofit and electrify rtg fleet  worldwide.  2011.
13.   Nam, K.-C., Kwak, K.-S. and Yu, M.-S., "Simulation study of container terminal performance", Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering,  Vol. 128, No. 3, (2002), 126-132.
14.   Notteboom, T., De Langen, P. and Jacobs, W., "Institutional plasticity and path dependence in seaports: Interactions between institutions, port governance reforms and port authority routines", Journal of Transport Geography,  Vol. 27, (2013), 26-35.
15.   Newell, R.G., Pizer, W.A. and Raimi, D., "Carbon markets 15 years after kyoto: Lessons learned, new challenges", Journal of Economic Perspectives,  Vol. 27, No. 1, (2013), 123-146.
16.   Bridge, G., Bouzarovski, S., Bradshaw, M. and Eyre, N., "Geographies of energy transition: Space, place and the low-carbon economy", Energy Policy,  Vol. 53, (2013), 331-340.
17.   Pearce, D., Barbier, E. and Markandya, A., "Sustainable development: Economics and environment in the third world, Routledge,  (2013).
18.   Loke, K., Saharuddin, A., Ibrahim, A. and Rizal, I., "Container handling efficiency", in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Marine Technology. (2004).
19.   Saanen, I., "Mega ships: Positive asset or terminals’ worst nightmare", Network,  Vol. 3, (2013), 86-106.
20.   Longo, F., Bruzzone, A., Nicoletti, L., Massei, M. and Spadafora, F., "An advanced and flexible simulation tool for environmental impact evaluation and sustainability enhancement in marine ports", International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology,  Vol. 6, No. 3, (2014), 70-84.
21.   Browning, L., "Current methodologies in preparing mobile source port-related emission inventories", In Final Report for US Environmental Protection Agency,  Vol., No., (2009).
22.   World Bank. Pump price for diesel fuel.  2014.
23.   Mekhilef, S., Barimani, M., Safari, A. and Salam, Z., "Malaysia’s renewable energy policies and programs with green aspects", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,  Vol. 40, (2014), 497-504.
24.   JPA. Johor port authority green port policy 2014-2020.  2014.
25.   Edenhofer, O. and Kalkuhl, M., "When do increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming? A note on the green paradox", Energy Policy,  Vol. 39, No. 4, (2011), 2208-2212.
26.   Vera, S. and Sauma, E., "Does a carbon tax make sense in countries with still a high potential for energy efficiency? Comparison between the reducing-emissions effects of carbon tax and energy efficiency measures in the chilean case", Energy,  Vol. 88, (2015), 478-488.
27.   Taylor, R. and Hoyle, R., "Australia becomes first developed nation to repeal carbon tax", Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal website: http://www. wsj. com/articles/australia-repeals-carbon-tax-1405560964,  (2014).
28.   M., Z., J., R. and Shokoufi K., "Pareto-based multi-criteria evolutionary algorithm approach for parallel machine scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times", International Journal Of EngineeringTransaction C: Aspects,  Vol. 30, No. 12 (2017), 1437-1446.
29.   Delkhosh, M. and SAADAT, F.M., "Multi-objective optimization of hybrid electric vehicle equipped with power-split continuously variable transmission", International Journal of Engineering (IJE), Transactions C: Aspects,  Vol. 29, No. 3, (2016), 368-377.
30.   Ghasemi, J. and Rasekhi, J., "Traffic signal prediction using elman neural network and particle swarm optimization", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 29, No. 11, (2016), 1558-1564.
31.   Markard, J., Raven, R. and Truffer, B., "Sustainability transitions: An emerging field of research and its prospects", Research Policy,  Vol. 41, No. 6, (2012), 955-967.