Experimental Study of The Mechanical Properties of Banana Fiber and Groundnut Shell Ash Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composite


Department of Mechanical Engg, GMRIT, Rajam, India


Effect of addition of filler material to the natural fiber composite was experimentally investigated. Composites are manufactured by the conventional hand-layup method. All composites are made with a fixed banana fiber with 15% weight fraction addition of different weight fraction of (0, 3, 5, 7.5%) groundnut shell ash is added to the composite. Tensile, hardness, impact and compressive strength are conducted to find the mechanical behaviour of the composites. Preparation and testing were conducted according to ASTM standards. Results illustrate that mechanical properties are improved by the addition of groundnut shell ash to the epoxy based banana fiber composite. Natural fiber composites are predominantly used in automobile (Door pannels, interior parts and cabin linings), aerospace and packing material. Natural fibers have more advantages like low cost, biodegradable and low density than the inorganic materials, the environmental impact of the natural fibers are less compared to synthetic fibers.


 1.     Wambua, P., Ivens, J. and Verpoest, I., "Natural fibres: Can they replace glass in fibre reinforced plastics?", Composites Science And Technology, Vol. 63, No. 9, (2003), 1259-1264.
2.     Pickering, K.L., Efendy, M.A. and Le, T.M., "A review of recent developments in natural fibre composites and their mechanical performance", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing,  Vol. 83, (2016), 98-112.
3.     Srinivas, K., Naidu, A.L. and RAJU BAHUBALENDRUNI, M., "A review on chemical and mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites", International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 2, (2017).
4.     Pothan, L.A., Oommen, Z. and Thomas, S., "Dynamic mechanical analysis of banana fiber reinforced polyester composites", Composites Science and Technology,  Vol. 63, No. 2, (2003), 283-293.
5.     Sapuan, S., Leenie, A., Harimi, M. and Beng, Y.K., "Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites", Materials & Design, Vol. 27, No. 8, (2006), 689-693.
6.     Wang, X. and He, W., "Mechanical properties of irregular fiber (invited review paper)", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 16, No. 1, (2003), 99-108.
7.     Behzad, M., Tajvidi, M. and Ehramini, G., "Dynamic mechanical analysis of compatibilizer effect on the mechanical properties of wood flour–hight-density", Iran. Robert H. Falk (Revised: 2004) Forest Product Laboratory, USDA Forest Service WI. USA,  Vol.17, No. 1, (2003).95-104.
8.     Maleque, M., Belal, F. and Sapuan, S., "Mechanical properties study of pseudo-stem banana fiber reinforced epoxy composite", The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering,  Vol. 32, No. 2B, (2007), 359-364.
9.     Bisanda, E. and Ansell, M.P., "The effect of silane treatment on the mechanical and physical properties of sisal-epoxy composites", Composites Science and Technology,  Vol. 41, No. 2, (1991), 165-178.
10.   Paul, S.A., Boudenne, A., Ibos, L., Candau, Y., Joseph, K. and Thomas, S., "Effect of fiber loading and chemical treatments on thermophysical properties of banana fiber/polypropylene commingled composite materials", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing,  Vol. 39, No. 9, (2008), 1582-1588.
11.   Boopalan, M., Niranjanaa, M. and Umapathy, M., "Study on the mechanical properties and thermal properties of jute and banana fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites", Composites Part B: Engineering,  Vol. 51, (2013), 54-57.
12.   Venkateshwaran, N., ElayaPerumal, A., Alavudeen, A. and Thiruchitrambalam, M., "Mechanical and water absorption behaviour of banana/sisal reinforced hybrid composites", Materials & Design,  Vol. 32, No. 7, (2011), 4017-4021.
13.   Alamri, H. and Low, I.M., "Mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy composites", Polymer Testing,  Vol. 31, No. 5, (2012), 620-628.
14.   Pothan, L.A., Thomas, S. and Groeninckx, G., "The role of fibre/matrix interactions on the dynamic mechanical properties of chemically modified banana fibre/polyester composites", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing,  Vol. 37, No. 9, (2006), 1260-1269.
15.   Pothan, L.A. and Thomas, S., "Polarity parameters and dynamic mechanical behaviour of chemically modified banana fiber reinforced polyester composites", Composites Science and Technology,  Vol. 63, No. 9, (2003), 1231-1240.
16.   Naidu, A.L. and Rao, P.R., "A review on chemical behaviour of natural fiber composites", International Journal of Chemical Sciences,  Vol. 14, No. 4, (2016), 2223-2238.
17.   S. S. Junian, J.S., M. Z. H. Makmud, Y. Z. Arief, and M. U. Wahit, "Tensile and physical properties of linear low density polyethylene-natural rubber composite : Comparison between size and filler types", Ije Transactions C: Aspects,  Vol. 29, No. 9, (2016), 1257-1262.
18.   A. Lakshumu Naidu, V.J.a.M.V.A.R.B., "A review on chemical and physical properties of natural fiber reinforced composites ", International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology,  Vol. 8, No. 1, (2017), 56-68.
19.   Anandjiwala, M.J.J.R.D., "Recent developments in chemical modification and characterization of natural fiber‐reinforced composites", Polymer Composites,  Vol. 29, No. 2, (2007), 187-207.
20.   Gassan, J., and Voytek S. Gutowski, "Effects of corona discharge and uv treatment on the properties of jute-fibre epoxy composites", Composites Science and Technology,  Vol. 60, No. 15, (2000), 2857-2863.
21.   Mohamed Ragoubi, D.B., Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George, André Merlin, "Impact of corona treated hemp fibres onto mechanical properties of polypropylene composites made thereof", Industrial Crops and Products,  Vol. 31, No. 2, (2010), 344-349.
22.   N. Venkateshwaran, A.E.P., D. Arunsundaranayagam, "Fiber surface treatment and its effect on mechanical and visco-elastic behaviour of banana/epoxy composite", Materials & Design,  Vol. 47, 151-159, (2013).
23.   Idicula, M., Joseph, K. and Thomas, S., "Mechanical performance of short banana/sisal hybrid fiber reinforced polyester composites", Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites,  Vol. 29, No. 1, (2010), 12-29.
24.   Manna, S., Saha, P., Chowdhury, S., Thomas, S. and Sharma, V., "Alkali treatment to improve physical, mechanical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic natural fibers for use in various applications", Lignocellulosic Biomass Production and Industrial Applications, (2017), 47-63.
25.   Manikandan, N., Morshed, M.N., Karthik, R., Al Azad, S., Deb, H., Rumi, T.M. and Ahmed, M.R., "Improvement of mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced jute/polyester epoxy composite through meticulous alkali treatment", American Journal of Current Organic Chemistry,  Vol. 3, No. 1, (2017), 9-18.
26.   Low, J.H., Andenan, N. and Wan Abdul Rahman, W.A., "The influence of crosslink chemicals on the mechanical strength and water absorption of rice straw-based green composites", Journal of Natural Fibers,  Vol. 15, No. 1, (2018), 122-130.
27.   Li, X., Tabil, L.G. and Panigrahi, S., "Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: A review", Journal of Polymers and the Environment,  Vol. 15, No. 1, (2007), 25-33.
28.   Kabir, M., Wang, H., Lau, K. and Cardona, F., "Chemical treatments on plant-based natural fibre reinforced polymer composites: An overview", Composites Part B: Engineering,  Vol. 43, No. 7, (2012), 2883-2892.
29.   Bakri, M.K.B., Jayamani, E. and Hamdan, S., "Processing and characterization of banana fiber/epoxy composites: Effect of alkaline treatment", Materials Today: Proceedings,  Vol. 4, No. 2, (2017), 2871-2878.
30.   Ismail, H., Edyham, M. and Wirjosentono, B., "Bamboo fibre filled natural rubber composites: The effects of filler loading and bonding agent", Polymer Testing,  Vol. 21, No. 2, (2002), 139-144.
31.   Naidu, A.L., Sudarshan, B. and Krishna, K.H., "Study on mechanical behavior of groundnut shell fiber reinforced polymer metal matrix composities", International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology,  Vol. 2, No. 2, (2013). https://www.ripublication.com/irph/ijert.htm.
32.   Mosalman, S., Rashahmadi, S. and Hasanzadeh, R., "The effect of tio2 nanoparticles on mechanical properties of poly methyl methacrylate nanocomposites (research note)", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 30, No. 5, (2017), 807-813.
33.   Chaboki, K. A., Sadrnezhad, S. And Yahyaei, M., "Stress transfer modeling in cnt reinforced composites using continuum mechanics",  Vol.21, No.3, (2008). 227-234.
34.   Naidu, A.L., Raghuveer, D. and Suman, P., "Studies on characterization and mechanical behavior of banana peel reinforced epoxy composites", Int J Sci Eng Res,  Vol. 4, No. 6, (2013), 844-851.
35.   Suman, P., Naidu, A.L. and Rao, P.R., "Processing and mechanical behaviour of hair fiber reinforced polymer metal matrix composites", in International Conference on Recent Innovations in Engineering and Technology (ICRIET-2k16), Organized by Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunpur on 5th & 6th November-2016.
36.   Shahzad, A. and Nasir, S.U., Mechanical properties of natural fiber/synthetic fiber reinforced polymer hybrid composites, in Green biocomposites. 2017, Springer.355-396.
37.   Manikandan, V. and Uthayakumar, M., "Effect of redmud particulates on mechanical properties of bfrp composites", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 27, No. 11, (2014), 1741.