Synthesis and Characterization of Porcelain Body Developed from Rice Husk Ash (TECHNICAL NOTE)


Department of Glass & Ceramic Engineering (GCE), Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology (RUET), Rajshahi, Bangladesh


For a developing country like Bangladesh, waste management is an important issue. Since it is a small over-populated country , strict government regulations regarding landfills is essential. Expansion of ceramic industries is considered to be one of the potential sectors for the economic growth of Bangladesh. However, raw material cost per unit production is the prime concern for industrialists. Utilization of rice husk (RH) for industrial purposes is found to be an effective solution associated with both waste disposal and financial concerns. Since, RH is a rich source of silica, it could substitute quartz used in ceramic industries. Availability of RH in Bangladesh makes it more suitable for manufacturing applications. Hence, in the present work we focused on the synthesis and characterization of porcelain body by incorporating 25% rice husk ash (RHA) as a substitute of quartz and evaluation of structure-property relationship by means of temperature. Three different calcination temperatures (700, 800 and 900oC) were chosen for the conversion of rice husk (RH) to rice husk ash (RHA).  True density measurement and phase identification of RHA was conducted to ensure the quality of raw material. Calcination at 900oC for 3 hours provided the preferred quality of RHA. Green samples for the porcelain body were prepared by a homogenous mixture of clay, feldspar, quartz and RHA, followed by densification at 950, 1050 and 1150oC for constant soaking time of 1 hour. The effect of calcination as well as sintering profile on the densification of porcelain body was assessed. Finally physical, mechanical and morphological characterizations were done. The investigation revealed that 1050oC as the optimum sintering temperature for 25% quartz substituted product.


1.     Hassan, U. and Maharaz, M., "Influence of addition of rice husk ash on porcelain composition", Science World Journal,  Vol. 10, No. 1, (2015), 7-16.
2.     Bondioli, F., Andreola, F., Barbieri, L., Manfredini, T. and Ferrari, A.M., "Effect of rice husk ash (RHA) in the synthesis of (Pr,Zr) SiO4 ceramic pigment", Journal of the European ceramic Society,  Vol. 27, No. 12, (2007), 3483-3488.
3.     Modi, V., Bhardwaj, A., Choudhary, R., Sharma, D. and Singh, P., "Preparation & characterization of vitrified tiles using rice husk ash & glass cullet", in Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research, JETIR. Vol. 3, (2016).
4.     Serra, M., Conconi, M., Gauna, M., Suárez, G., Aglietti, E. and Rendtorff, N., "Mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2) ceramics obtained by reaction sintering of rice husk ash and alumina, phase evolution, sintering and microstructure", Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies,  Vol. 4, No. 1, (2016), 61-67.
5.     Sultana, M., Hossain, M., Rahman, M. and Khan, M., "Influence of rice husk ash and fly ash on properties of red clay", Journal Of Scientific Research,  Vol. 6, No. 3, (2014), 421-430.
6.     Mehta, P.K., "Concrete. Structure, properties and materials",  (1986).
7.     Okafor, J., "Development and characterization of adsorbent from rice husk ash to bleach vegetable oils".
8.     Madrid, R., Nogueira, C. and Margarido, F., "Production and characterisation of amorphous silica from rice husk waste", in WasteEng’2012: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Engineering for Waste and Biomass Valorisation., (2012).
9.     Igwebike-Ossi, C.D., "Potassium oxide analysis in rice husk ash at various combustion conditions using proton-induced x-ray emission (pixe) spectrometric", International Journal of Applied Chemistry,  Vol. 12, No. 3, (2016), 281-291.
10.   Chandrasekhar, S., Satyanarayana, K., Pramada, P., Raghavan, P. and Gupta, T., "Review processing, properties and applications of reactive silica from rice husk—an overview", Journal of materials science,  Vol. 38, No. 15, (2003), 3159-3168.
11.   Confidential report, “rice husk ash market study,” 2003 http:// webarchives.Nationalarchives.Gov.Uk.
12.   Ikram, N. and Akhter, M., "X-ray diffraction analysis of silicon prepared from rice husk ash", Journal of materials science,  Vol. 23, No. 7, (1988), 2379-2381.
13.   Romero, J. and Reinoso, F., "Synthesis sic from rice husk catalyzed by iron, cobalt or nikel", Journal Materials Science,  Vol. 31, (1996), 779-784.
14.   Rahman, I., "Preparation of si3n4 by carbothermal reduction of digested rice husk", Ceramics International,  Vol. 20, No. 3, (1994), 195-199.
15.   Gorthy, P., "Production of silicon carbide from rice husks", Journal of the American Ceramic Society,  Vol. 82, No. 6, (1999), 1393-1400.
16.   Real, C., Alcalá, M.D. and Criado, J.M., "Synthesis of silicon nitride from carbothermal reduction of rice husks by the constant‐rate‐thermal‐analysis (CRTA) method", Journal of the American Ceramic Society,  Vol. 87, No. 1, (2004), 75-78.
17.   Bose, S., Acharya, H.N. and Banerjee, H.D., "Electrical, thermal thermoelectric and related of magnesium silicate semiconductor prepared from rice husk", Journal of Material Science,  Vol. 28, No., (1993), 5461-5468.
18.   Chatterjee, M. and Naskar, M.K., "Sol–gel synthesis of lithium aluminum silicate powders: The effect of silica source", Ceramics International,  Vol. 32, No. 6, (2006), 623-632.
19.   Kato, F., "Recycling waste husk into road construction material", Mon. Waste,  Vol. 26, No. 12, (2000), 68-71.
20.   Real, C., Alcala, M.D. and Criado, J.M., "Preparation of silica from rice husks", Journal of the American Ceramic Society,  Vol. 79, No. 8, (1996), 2012-2016.
21.   Choi, N.-W., Mori, I. and Ohama, Y., "Development of rice husks–plastics composites for building materials", Waste Management,  Vol. 26, No. 2, (2006), 189-194.
22.   Sembiring, S. and Manurung, P., "Synthesis and characterisation of cordierite (mg2al4si5o18) ceramics based on the rice husk silica", in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains Mipa dan Aplikasi (ISBN: 978-602-98559-1-3). Vol. 1, (2010).
23.   Oyetola, E. and Abdullahi, M., "The use of rice husk ash in low-cost sandcrete block production", Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies,  Vol. 8, No. 1, (2006), 58-70.
24.   Oyekan, G. and Kamiyo, O., "Effect of nigerian rice husk ash on some engineering properties of sandcrete blocks and concrete", Research Journal of Applied Sciences,  Vol. 3, No. 5, (2008), 345-351.
25.   Igwebike-Ossi, C., "Rice husk ash as new extender in textured paint", Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria,  Vol. 37, No., (2012), 72-75.
26.   Igwebike-Ossi, C., "Rice husk ash as new flatting extender in red oxide primer", Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria,  Vol. 37, (2012), 59-64.
27.   Igwebike-Ossi, C., "Rice husk ash as flatting extender in cellulose matt paint", American Journal of Applied Chemistry,  Vol. 2, (2014), 122-127.
28.   Igwebike-Ossi, C., "Pigment extender properties of rice husk ash in emulsion paint", International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology,  Vol. 4, No., (2015), 6821-6829.
29.   Andreola, F., Barbieri, L. and Bondioli, F., "Agricultural waste in the synthesis of coral ceramic pigment", Dyes and pigments,  Vol. 94, No. 2, (2012), 207-211.
30.   Wattanasiriwech, D., Polpuak, N., Danthaisong, P. and Wattanasiriwech, S., "Use of rice husk ash for quartz substitution in stoneware glazes",  (2008).
31.   Bondioli, F., Barbieri, L., Ferrari, A.M. and Manfredini, T., "Characterization of rice husk ash and its recycling as quartz substitute for the production of ceramic glazes", Journal of the American Ceramic Society,  Vol. 93, No. 1, (2010), 121-126.
32.   Okemini, O.F. and Dilim, I.-O.C., "Formulation and performance evaluation of wood adhesives produced with rice husk ash as new filler", American Journal of Applied Chemistry,  Vol. 3, No. 2, (2015), 33-39.
33.   Ohoke, F. and Igwebike-Ossi, C., "Formulation and performance characterization of ceramic tile adhesive produced with acacia gum", International Journal of Innovation Sciences and Research,  Vol. 4, No., (2015), 258-261.
34.   Saravanan, M. and Sivaraja, M., "Mechanical behavior of concrete modified by replacement of cement by rice husk ash", Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology,  Vol. 59, No. SPE2, (2016).
35.   Shafabakhsh, G. and Ahmadi, S., "Evaluation of coal waste ash and rice husk ash on properties of pervious concrete pavement", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 29, No. 2, (2016), 192-201.
36.   Tonnayopas, D., Tekasakul, P. and Jaritgnam, S., "Effects of rice husk ash on characteristics of lightweight clay brick", in Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development Conference, Khon Kaen Univ., (2008), 28-29.
37.   Mousavi, S., "Performance of non-fired green brick containing rice husk as sustainable building material", (2016).
38.   Prasad, C., Maiti, K.N. and Venugopal, R., "Effect of rice husk ash in whiteware compositions", Ceramics international,  Vol. 27, No. 6, (2001), 629-635.
39.   Ali, M.S., MA, A., Tahir, S., Jaafar, C., Norkhairunnisa, M. and Matori, K.A., "Preparation and characterization of porous alumina ceramics using different pore agents", Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan,  Vol. 125, No. 5, (2017), 402-412.
40.   Noh, M., Jamo, H. and Ahmad, Z., "Enhancing bending strength of porcelain affected by rha at different mould pressure",  (2006).
41.   Bhardwaj, A., Hossain, S. and Majhi, M.R., "Preparation and characterization of clay bonded high strength silica refractory by utilizing agriculture waste", Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio,  Vol., No., (2017).
42.   Angelo, P. and Subramanian, R., "Powder metallurgy: Science, technology and applications, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.,  (2008).
43.   Bribiesca, S., Equihua, R. and Villaseñor, L., "Photoacoustic thermal characterization of electrical porcelains: Effect of alumina additions on thermal diffusivity and elastic constants", Journal of the European ceramic society,  Vol. 19, No. 11, (1999), 1979-1985.
44.   Carty, W.M. and Senapati, U., "Porcelain—raw materials, processing, phase evolution, and mechanical behavior", Journal of the American Ceramic Society,  Vol. 81, No. 1, (1998), 3-20.
45.   Khanna, O., "Material science and metallurgy", Dhanpat Rai Pub (P) Ltd,  (2009).