Batch Study on COD and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal Using Granular Activated Carbon and Cockle Shells


1 Centre of Advanced Research for Integrated Solid Waste Management (CARISMA), Faculty of Civil and Environment Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria

3 Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

4 School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

5 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Landfills generate leachate that contains elevated concentration of contaminants and is hazardous to human health and the ecosystem. In this study, the mixture of granular activated carbon and cockle shells was investigated for remediation of COD and ammonia from stabilized landfill leachate. All adsorbent media were sieved to a particle size between 2.00 and 3.35 mm. The optimum mixing ratio, shaking speed, shaking time, pH, and dosage were determined. Characterization results show that the leachate had a high concentration of COD (1763 mg/L), ammonia nitrogen (573 mg/L), and BOD5/COD ratio (0.09). The optimum mixing ratio of granular activated carbon and cockle shells was 20:20, shaking speed 150 rpm, pH level 6, shaking time 120 min, and dosage 32 g. The adsorption isotherm analysis reveals that the Langmuir isotherm yielded the best fit to experimental data as compared with the Freundlich isotherm. The media produce encouraging results and can be used as a good and economical adsorbent.


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