Aniline Degradation Using Advanced Oxidation Process by UV/Peroxy Disulfate from Aqueous Solution


1 Department of Environment Health, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

2 Nutrition Health Research Center, Department of Environment Health, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Environmental Health Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences,Gorgan, Iran

5 Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran


This study is focused on removing toxic aniline from aqueous solutions using advanced oxidation process by UV/ peroxy disulfate. In this study, the effect of various parameters including pH (3-9), the level of radiation (ultraviolet 30 watt lamp, number 2-5), peroxy disulfate dose (0.02 – 0.08 mol/l) and the initial concentration (20 – 100 mg/l) at different contact times (10 – 60 min) on the efficiency of aniline removal in a laboratory reactor with UV lamps and in a batch mode, was studied. The results of this study showed that the efficiency of removing aniline decreased by increasing and decreasing pH from 5 (maximum efficiency = 66.6%, at pH= 5) and also by increasing the concentration of pollutant. But by increasing the amount of radiation and peroxy disulfate dosage (0.02 to 0.08 mol/l, the process efficiencies will be 46 to 82.8% after 60 min, respectively), the efficiency increased. The efficiency of removing aniline in the combined process of UV/peroxy disulfate increased significantly by using peroxy disulfate and UV, individually (96%). In the process, the efficiency of removing aniline from aqueous solution was due to the production of UV effect on Peroxy disulfate and the production of strong oxidizing radicals. Therefore, due to the high performance and low cost raw materials, this process can be used for removing resistant compounds from industrial sewages.


1.     Feigelson, L., Muszkat, L., Bir, L. and Muszkat, K., "Dye photo-enhancement of tio2-photocatalyzed degradation of organic pollutants: The organobromine herbicide bromacil", Water Science and Technology,  Vol. 42, No. 1-2, (2000), 275-279.
2.     Sannino, D., Ciambelli, P., Ricciardi, M. and Lyubov, A.I., Wastewater treatment by high efficiency heterogeneous photo-fenton process. 2008, Google Patents.
3.     Delnavaz, M., Ayati, B. and Ganjidoust, H., "Reaction kinetics of aniline synthetic wastewater treatment by moving bed biofilm reactor", Iranian Journal of Health and Environment,  Vol. 2, No. 1, (2009), 76-87.
4.     Wang, L., Barrington, S. and Kim, J.-W., "Biodegradation of pentyl amine and aniline from petrochemical wastewater", Journal of Environmental Management,  Vol. 83, No. 2, (2007), 191-197.
5.     Zhou, Y., Gu, X., Zhang, R. and Lu, J., "Removal of aniline from aqueous solution using pine sawdust modified with citric acid and β-cyclodextrin", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,  Vol. 53, No. 2, (2014), 887-894.
6.     Hoydonckx, H., Van Rhijn, W., Van Rhijn, W., De Vos, D. and Jacobs, P., "Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry", Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi,  Vol. 10, (2007), 14356007.
7.     Anipsitakis, G.P. and Dionysiou, D.D., "Radical generation by the interaction of transition metals with common oxidants", Environmental Science & Technology,  Vol. 38, No. 13, (2004), 3705-3712.
8.     Omidi, Y., Kamareei, B., Nourmoradi, H., Basiri, H. and Heidari, S., "Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-modified montmorillonite as a low-cost sorbent for the removal of methyl red from liquid-medium", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 29, No. 1, (2016), 60-69.
9.     Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Liu, C., Guo, Y., Shan, N., Meng, C. and Sun, L., "Removal of cod from landfill leachate by an electro/fe 2+/peroxydisulfate process", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 250, (2014), 76-82.
10.   Haidari, S., Kamarehie, B., Jafari, A., Birjandi, M. and Afrasyabi, S., "Oxalic acid degradation from aqueous solution using ozonation process in the presence of magnesium oxide nanoparticles catalyst stabilized on activated carbon", International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering,  Vol. 5, No. 1, (2016), 23-30.
11.   Roshan, B., Kadirvelu, K. and Kumar, N.S., "Investigation of aniline adsorption onto spherical carbon: Optimization using response surface methodology", International Journal Engineering Research Applied,  Vol. 3, No. 5, (2013), 943-952.
12.   Zhang, Y.q., Xie, X.f., Huang, W.l. and Huang, S.b., "Degradation of aniline by fe 2+-activated persulfate oxidation at ambient temperature", Journal of Central South University,  Vol. 20, No. 4, (2013), 1010-1014.
13.   Khataee, A. and Mirzajani, O., "Uv/peroxydisulfate oxidation of ci basic blue 3: Modeling of key factors by artificial neural network", Desalination,  Vol. 251, No. 1, (2010), 64-69.
14.   Xu, X.-R. and Li, X.-Z., "Degradation of azo dye orange g in aqueous solutions by persulfate with ferrous ion", Separation and Purification Technology,  Vol. 72, No. 1, (2010), 105-111.
15.   Guo, Y., Zhou, J., Lou, X., Liu, R., Xiao, D., Fang, C., Wang, Z. and Liu, J., "Enhanced degradation of tetrabromobisphenol a in water by a uv/base/persulfate system: Kinetics and intermediates", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 254, (2014), 538-544.
16.   Méndez-Díaz, J., Sánchez-Polo, M., Rivera-Utrilla, J., Canonica, S. and Von Gunten, U., "Advanced oxidation of the surfactant sdbs by means of hydroxyl and sulphate radicals", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 163, No. 3, (2010), 300-306.
17.   Wang, C.-W. and Liang, C., "Oxidative degradation of tmah solution with uv persulfate activation", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 254, (2014), 472-478.
18.   Huang, K.-C., Zhao, Z., Hoag, G.E., Dahmani, A. and Block, P.A., "Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation", Chemosphere,  Vol. 61, No. 4, (2005), 551-560.
19.   Salari, D., Niaei, A., Aber, S. and Rasoulifard, M.H., "The photooxidative destruction of ci basic yellow 2 using uv/s 2 o 8 2− process in a rectangular continuous photoreactor", Journal of Hazardous Materials,  Vol. 166, No. 1, (2009), 61-66.
20.   Oh, S.-Y., Kim, H.-W., Park, J.-M., Park, H.-S. and Yoon, C., "Oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol by persulfate activated with heat, fe 2+, and zero-valent iron", Journal of Hazardous Materials,  Vol. 168, No. 1, (2009), 346-351.
21.   Zhao, J., Zhang, Y., Quan, X. and Chen, S., "Enhanced oxidation of 4-chlorophenol using sulfate radicals generated from zero-valent iron and peroxydisulfate at ambient temperature", Separation and Purification Technology,  Vol. 71, No. 3, (2010), 302-307.
22.   Lin, Y.-T., Liang, C. and Chen, J.-H., "Feasibility study of ultraviolet activated persulfate oxidation of phenol", Chemosphere,  Vol. 82, No. 8, (2011), 1168-1172.
23.   Samarghandi, M.R., Leili, M., Harati, R. and Tarlani Azar, M., "Efficiency of electro/persulfate process by iron electrode in removing furfural from aqueous solution", Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences,  Vol. 24, No. 119, (2014), 95-108.
24.   Gao, Y.-q., Gao, N.-y., Deng, Y., Yang, Y.-q. and Ma, Y., "Ultraviolet (uv) light-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethazine in water", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 195, (2012), 248-253.
25.   Waldemer, R.H., Tratnyek, P.G., Johnson, R.L. and Nurmi, J.T., "Oxidation of chlorinated ethenes by heat-activated persulfate: Kinetics and products", Environmental Science & Technology,  Vol. 41, No. 3, (2007), 1010-1015.
26.   Cai, C., Zhang, H., Zhong, X. and Hou, L., "Electrochemical enhanced heterogeneous activation of peroxydisulfate by fe–co/sba-15 catalyst for the degradation of orange ii in water", Water research,  Vol. 66, (2014), 473-485.
27.   Liang, C. and Su, H.-W., "Identification of sulfate and hydroxyl radicals in thermally activated persulfate", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research,  Vol. 48, No. 11, (2009), 5558-5562.
28.   Liang, C., Wang, Z.-S. and Bruell, C.J., "Influence of ph on persulfate oxidation of tce at ambient temperatures",
Chemosphere,  Vol. 66, No. 1, (2007), 106-113.
29.   Panbehkar Bishe, M. and Ayati, B., "The effect of na2s2o8 oxidant on improving the efficiency of photo-catalytic process of nano-tio2 immobilized on concrete in db71 removal".
30.   Astereki, S., Kamarehie, B. and Jafari, A., "2-chlorophenol removal of aqueous solution using advanced oxidation processes resulting from iron/persulfate and ultra violet/persulfate", Iranian Journal of Toxicology,  Vol. 10, No. 4, (2016), 1-8.
31.   Shu, H.-Y., Chang, M.-C. and Huang, S.-W., "Uv irradiation catalyzed persulfate advanced oxidation process for decolorization of acid blue 113 wastewater", Desalination and Water Treatment,  Vol. 54, No. 4-5, (2015), 1013-1021.
32.   Chen, W.-S. and Huang, C.-P., "Mineralization of aniline in aqueous solution by electrochemical activation of persulfate", Chemosphere,  Vol. 125, (2015), 175-181.