Eco-friendly Blocks by Blended Materials


Department of Civil Engineering, KL University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India


In spite of broad improvements in construction technology, cement is still stayed as binding material for construction purposes. Cement industries are the main sources for the contribution of carbon dioxide (co2) into the atmosphere. So, there is a need to use new materials as binders (green binders) in substitute for cement, which leads to reducing the production of cement. In this study, fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) are used as source materials. Since fly ash and GGBS are industrial wastages which are non-renewable in nature, quarry dust is used as the partial replacement that is 50% in weight with fine aggregate. Soluble activators like Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) of 12M are used instead of water in the ratio of 1:2.5.  Different mix proportions are considered in this study such as F80G20, F70G30 and F60G40. These mix proportion results were compared with conventional concrete of M20. The results were drawn for different strength tests such are Compressive strength test, Split Tensile strength test and Flexural strength test. From the results it is concluded that F60G40 mix has high Compressive strength, Split Tensile strength and Flexural strength compared to remaining mixes along with conventional concrete.


1.     Rajini, B. and Rao, A. N., "Mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete with fly ash and ggbs as source materials", International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology,  Vol. 3, No. 9, (2014), 15944-15953.
2.     Davidovits, J., "Pyramids of egypt made of man-made stone, myth or fact?", in Symposium on Archaeometry, (1984), 26-27.
3.     Davidovits, J., "Geopolymer chemistry and applications",Institute Geopolymere, Saint-Quentin, France, (2008).
4.     Davidovits, J., "What is a geopolymer? Introduction", Institute Geopolymere, Saint- Quentin, France, Accessed on January 29,  (2010).
5.     Maghsoudi, A. and Dahooei, F. A., "Application of nanotechnology in self compacting concrete design", International Journal of Engineering Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 22, No., 3, (2009), 229-244.
6.     Vignesh, P. and Vivek, K., "An experimental investigation on strength parameters of flyash based geopolymer concrete with GGBS", International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,  Vol. 2, No. 2, (2015), 135-142.
7.     Maneeshkumar, C., "An experimental investigation on GGBS and flyash based geopolymer concrete with replacement of sand by quarry dust", International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications,  Vol. 1, No. 5, (2015), 91-95.
8.     Bhikshma, V., Koti Reddy, M. and Srinivas Rao, T., "An experimental investigation on properties of geopolymer concrete (no cement concrete)", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering Building and Housing,  Vol. 13, No. 6, (2012), 841-853.
9.     Al Bakri, M. M., Mohammed, H., Kamarudin, H., Niza, I. K. and Zarina, Y., "Review on fly ash-based geopolymer concrete without portland cement", Journal of Engineering and Technology Research,  Vol. 3, No. 1, (2011), 1-4.
10.   IS 383-1997., "Indian Standard Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete".
11.   IS 2386 Part III-1963., "Methods of Test for Aggregates Part 3 – Specific gravity, Density".
12.   IS 516-1959., "Indian Standard Methods of Tests for Strengthing of Concrete".