Adaptive Voltage-based Control of Direct-drive Robots Driven by Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors


Department of Electrical and Robotic Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology


Tracking control of the direct-drive robot manipulators in high-speed is a challenging problem. The Coriolis and centrifugal torques become dominant in the high-speed motion control. The dynamical model of the robotic system including the robot manipulator and actuators is highly nonlinear, heavily coupled, uncertain and computationally extensive in non-companion form. In order to overcome these problems, this paper presents a novel adaptive control for direct-drive robot manipulators driven by Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) in tracking applications. The novelty of this paper is that the proposed adaptive law is free from manipulator dynamics by using the Voltage Control Strategy (VCS). Additionally, a state space model of the robotic system driven by PMSM is presented. The VCS differs from the commonly used control strategy for robot manipulators the so called torque control strategy. The position control of the PMSM is effectively used for the tracking control of the robot manipulator. This idea takes the control problem from the manipulator control to the motor control resulting in a simple yet efficient control design. Compared with the torque control, the control design is simpler, easier to implement with better tracking performance. The control method is verified by stability analysis.  Simulation results show superiority of the proposed control to the torque control applied by field oriented control on the direct-drive robot driven by PMSM.


1.     Chen, H. and Liu, Y., "Robotic assembly automation using robust compliant control", Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing,  Vol. 29, No. 2, (2013), 293-300.
2.     Gracia, L., Garelli, F. and Sala, A., "Integrated sliding-mode algorithms in robot tracking applications", Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing,  Vol. 29, No. 1, (2013), 53-62.
3.     Lotfazar, A., Eghtesad, M. and Mohseni, M., "Integrator backstepping control of a 5 DOF robot manipulator incorporating actuator dynamics", International Journal of engineering-Transactions B: Application, Vol. 16, No. 4 (2003) 373-383.
4.     Garmsiri, N., Najafi, F. and Saadat, M., "A new intelligent approach to patient-cooperative control of rehabilitation robots", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions C: Aspects,  Vol. 27, No. 3, (2013), 467-474.
5.     Hwang, J. P. and Kim, E., "Robust tracking control of an electrically driven robot: Adaptive fuzzy logic approach", IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy systems,  Vol. 14, No. 2, (2006), 232-247.
6.     Liu, H. and Zhang, T., "Neural network-based robust finite-time control for robotic manipulators considering actuator dynamics", Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing,  Vol. 29, No. 2, (2013), 301-308.
7.     Fateh, M. M., "On the voltage-based control of robot manipulators", International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems,  Vol. 6, No. 5, (2008), 702-712.
8.     Fateh, M. M., "Robust fuzzy control of electrical manipulators", Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems,  Vol. 60, No. 3, (2010), 415-434.
9.     Fateh, M. M., "Robust control of flexible-joint robots using voltage control strategy", Nonlinear Dynamics,  Vol. 67, No. 2, (2012), 1525-1537.
10.   Fateh, M. M., "Nonlinear control of electrical flexible-joint robots", Nonlinear Dynamics,  Vol. 67, No. 4, (2012), 2549-2559.
11.   Fateh, M. and Sadeghijaleh, M., "Voltage control strategy for direct-drive robots driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 28, No. 5, (2014), 709-716.
12.   Foo, G. and Rahman, M., "Sensorless direct torque and flux-controlled ipm synchronous motor drive at very low speed without signal injection", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,  Vol. 57, No. 1, (2010), 395-403.
13.   Saad, N. and Arrofiq, M., "A plc-based modified-fuzzy controller for pwm-driven induction motor drive with constant V/HZ ratio control", Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing,  Vol. 28, No. 2, (2012), 95-112.
14.   Kazmierkowski, M. P., Franquelo, L. G., Rodriguez, J., Perez, M. A. and Leon, J. I., "High-performance motor drives", IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine,  Vol. 5, No. 3, (2011), 6-26.
15.   Zhong, L., Rahman, M. F., Hu, W. Y. and Lim, K., "Analysis of direct torque control in permanent magnet synchronous motor drives", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,  Vol. 12, No. 3, (1997), 528-536.
16.   Pacas, M., "Sensorless drives in industrial applications", IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine,  Vol. 5, No. 2, (2011), 16-23.
17.   Ahmed, M. S. S., Zhang, P. and Wu, Y.-J., "Position control of synchronous motor drive by modified adaptive two-phase sliding mode controller", International Journal of Automation and Computing,  Vol. 5, No. 4, (2008), 406-412.
18.   Faiz, J. and Abolghasemian-Azami, M., "A review of the control techniques for brushless direct current motors (review paper)", International Journal of Engineering,  Vol. 12, No. 1, (1999), 49-67.
19.   Krause, P. C., Wasynczuk, O., Sudhoff, S. D. and Pekarek, S., "Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems", Wiley-IEEE Press,  (2002).
20.   Lin, F.-J. and Lin, Y.-S., "A robust PM synchronous motor drive with adaptive uncertainty observer", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion,  Vol. 14, No. 4, (1999), 989-995.
21.           Rashed, M., MacConnell, P. F., Stronach, A. F. and Acarnley, P., "Sensorless indirect-rotor-field-orientation speed control of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor with stator-resistance estimation", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,  Vol. 54, No. 3, (2007), 1664-1675.