Performance of Non-fired Green Brick Containing Rice Husk as Sustainable Building Material


Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineeri, Universiti Tenaga Nasional


The demand for sustainable alternative construction materials to cement in modern technology cannot be underemphasized. This paper presents a non-fired green brick with an agriculture residue namely, rice husk. Although, high plasticity brown clay deposits are widely distributed in Malaysia and rice husk is a well known agriculture residue, research works on non-fired green brick with rice husk are relatively scarce. This research aims to investigate the strength development in non-fired bricks containing various amounts of rice husk. To achieve such aim, compression and flexural tests were conducted to evaluate compressive and flexural strengths of non-fired bricks. A series of brick specimens were cast with varying rice husk percentages. The test specimens were naturally sun dried. The effects of rice husk percentage (9-15%) and drying age (1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days) on Atterberg limits; compressive strength; water absorption and flexural strength were investigated. The results indicate that, 12% rice husk is the optimum content to reach maximum 28-day compressive and flexural strengths of 10.4 MPa and 3.5 MPa respectively. The results further showed that rice husk higher than 12% leads lower strength than control bricks for all the ages. In summary, it has been observed that rice husk enables a rapid strength development, enhancing the compressive and flexural strengths of the bricks. The results developed in this research work can contribute a cost-effective design of non-fired green brick as a sustainable building material.