dep. of mining and metallurgy, Yazd University
New approaches to extracting natural hydroxyl carbonate apatite from bio waste of bovine bones cortical femur have been developed. To extract pure and natural bio ceramics, three different treatments have been applied: 1-Calcination heat treatment at temperature of 700 , 2-alkaline hydrothermal at temperature of 275 and 3-Pressurized low polarity water at temperature of 250 . Raw bovine bone and obtained apatite have been characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermal gravity analyzer and fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that all the proposed processes have this ability to produce pure natural hydroxyl carbonate apatite from bio-waste bovine bones. In calcinations heat treatment process, mainly all the organic component such collagen was removed at temperature of 600 and a carbonate apatite was obtained. The presence of carbonate groups led to increasing the biocompatibility and will be preferable for orthopedic and medical usages. At The degree of crystallization of powders is increased by increasing of temperature from 250°C for pressurized low polarity water processing to 600°C for calcinations treatment. Growth behavior and adhesion of cultured umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on the surface of 2-D hydroxyapatite scaffolds derived by these three different methods have been investigated. The results show that the stem cells could survive and attach on surface of derived carbonated hydroxyapatite scaffolds and demonstrate no negative response.