Investigation and Optimization of Tribological Aspects of Babbitt-Ilmenite Composite using Weighted Grey Relation Analysis

Document Type : Original Article


University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India


Babbitt-Ilmenite composite prepared via stir casting method with controllable parameters which include percentage weight of Ilmenite, stirring speed and aging time was investigated for its sliding wear characteristics and coefficient of friction (COF) with varying applied load, sliding velocity and sliding distance. Morphological tests were conducted for characterization of the composite and to ascertain the wear mechanism under mild and severe conditions. Taguchi philosophy with analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical technique was used for multi-objective optimization of the tribological characteristics of the composite. The entropy based grey relation analysis (EGRA) performed for weighted multi-performance optimization of tribological aspects of the composite and hybrid Taguchi grey relation technique (TGRA) confirmed that the percentage weight of Ilmenite, applied load, sliding distance and stirring speed were the significant parameters with regard to multi - criteria optimization with contributions of 44.46%, 23.82%, 11.33%, and 5.66%, respectively. There is an overall improvement in wear resistance and COF at optimal TGRA conditions. Babbitt-Ilmenite composite can be used in steel slide bearing bushings for power, automobile and aerospace.


Main Subjects

  1. Chawla, K.K. and Chawla, K.K., "Metal matrix composites, Springer, (1998).
  2. Deuis, R., Subramanian, C. and Yellup, J., "Dry sliding wear of aluminium composites—a review", Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 57, No. 4, (1997), 415-435.
  3. Suresha, S. and Sridhara, B., "Effect of addition of graphite particulates on the wear behaviour in aluminium–silicon carbide–graphite composites", Materials & Design, Vol. 31, No. 4, (2010), 1804-1812.
  4. Sannino, A. and Rack, H., "Dry sliding wear of discontinuously reinforced aluminum composites: Review and discussion", Wear, Vol. 189, No. 1-2, (1995), 1-19.
  5. Sinclair, I. and Gregson, P., "Structural performance of discontinuous metal matrix composites", Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 13, No. 9, (1997), 709-726.
  6. Chawla, N. and Shen, Y.L., "Mechanical behavior of particle reinforced metal matrix composites", Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 3, No. 6, (2001), 357-370.
  7. Suresha, S. and Sridhara, B., "Wear characteristics of hybrid aluminium matrix composites reinforced with graphite and silicon carbide particulates", Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 70, No. 11, (2010), 1652-1659.
  8. Singh, J. and Chauhan, A., "A review on sliding wear behaviour of aluminium matrix composites with hybrid reinforcements for automotive applications", Tribology Online, Vol. 9, No. 3, (2014), 121-134.
  9. Panwar, R.S. and Pandey, O., "Analysis of wear track and debris of stir cast lm13/zr composite at elevated temperatures", Materials Characterization, Vol. 75, (2013), 200-213. doi.
  10. Kumar, R. and Dhiman, S., "A study of sliding wear behaviors of al-7075 alloy and al-7075 hybrid composite by response surface methodology analysis", Materials & Design, Vol. 50, (2013), 351-359. doi: j.matdes.2013.02.038.
  11. Radhika, N., Subramanian, R. and Prasat, S.V., "Tribological behaviour of aluminium/alumina/graphite hybrid metal matrix composite using taguchi’s techniques", Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 05, (2011), 427.
  12. Chattoraj, P., Prabhakar, P., Koti, V., Natarajan, N.S., Lakshminarayana, M., Arul, K., Venkatachalapathy, M., Ahamed, M., Karnan, M. and Kumar, S.P., "Optimization on tribological behaviour of aa7178/nano titanium diboride hybrid composites employing taguchi techniques", Journal of Nanomaterials, Vol. 2022, (2022).
  13. Rajmohan, T., Palanikumar, K. and Ranganathan, S., "Evaluation of mechanical and wear properties of hybrid aluminium matrix composites", Transactions of nonferrous metals society of China, Vol. 23, No. 9, (2013), 2509-2517.
  14. Alaneme, K.K. and Olubambi, P.A., "Corrosion and wear behaviour of rice husk ash—alumina reinforced al–mg–si alloy matrix hybrid composites", Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, (2013), 188-194.
  15. Mahesh, V., Nair, P.S., Rajan, T., Pai, B. and Hubli, R., "Processing of surface-treated boron carbide-reinforced aluminum matrix composites by liquid–metal stir-casting technique", Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 45, No. 23, (2011), 2371-2378.
  16. Kuldeep, B., Ravikumar, K. and Pradeep, S., "Effect of hexagonal boron nitrate on microstructure and mechanical behavior of al7075 metal matrix composite producing by stir casting technique", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 32, No. 7, (2019), 1017-1022.
  17. Mishra, S.K., Biswas, S. and Satapathy, A., "A study on processing, characterization and erosion wear behavior of silicon carbide particle filled za-27 metal matrix composites", Materials & Design, Vol. 55, (2014), 958-965.
  18. Kumar, D., Angra, S. and Singh, S., "Mechanical properties and wear behaviour of stir cast aluminum metal matrix composite: A review", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 35, No. 4, (2022), 794-801.
  19. Idusuyi, N. and Olayinka, J.I., "Dry sliding wear characteristics of aluminium metal matrix composites: A brief overview", Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 3, (2019), 3338-3346.
  20. Samal, P., Mandava, R.K. and Vundavilli, P.R., "Dry sliding wear behavior of al 6082 metal matrix composites reinforced with red mud particles", SN Applied Sciences, Vol. 2, (2020), 1-11.
  21. Singh, J. and Chauhan, A., "Investigations on dry sliding frictional and wear characteristics of sic and red mud reinforced Al2024 matrix hybrid composites using taguchi's approach", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, Vol. 233, No. 9, (2019), 1923-1938.
  22. LeszczyƄska-Madej, B. and Madej, M., "The tribological properties and the microstructure investigations of tin babbit with pb addition after heat treatment", Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Vol. 61, No. 4, (2016), 1861-1868.
  23. Saindane, U., Soni, S. and Menghani, J., "Dry sliding behavior of carbon-based brake pad materials", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 34, No. 11, (2021), 2517-2524.
  24. Kumar, D. and Thakur, L., "A study of processing and parametric optimization of wear-resistant az91-tib2 composite fabricated by ultrasonic-assisted stir casting process", Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, Vol. 10, No. 2, (2022), 025024.
  25. Kumar, S.S., Uthayakumar, M., Kumaran, S.T., Parameswaran, P., Mohandas, E., Kempulraj, G., Babu, B.R. and Natarajan, S., "Parametric optimization of wire electrical discharge machining on aluminium based composites through grey relational analysis", Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 20, (2015), 33-39.
  26. Shivalingaiah, K., Nagarajaiah, V., Selvan, C.P., Kariappa, S.T., Chandrashekarappa, N.G., Lakshmikanthan, A., Chandrashekarappa, M.P.G. and Linul, E., "Stir casting process analysis and optimization for better properties in al-mwcnt-gr-based hybrid composites", Metals, Vol. 12, No. 8, (2022), 1297.
  27. Saindane, U., Soni, S. and Menghani, J., "Friction and wear performance of brake pad and optimization of manufacturing parameters using grey relational analysis", International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 3, (2022), 552-559.
  28. Ramu, I., Srinivas, P. and Vekatesh, K., "Taguchi based grey relational analysis for optimization of machining parameters of cnc turning steel 316", in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing. Vol. 377, (2018), 012078.
  29. Jangra, K., Grover, S. and Aggarwal, A., "Optimization of multi machining characteristics in wedm of wc-5.3% co composite using integrated approach of taguchi, gra and entropy method", Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 7, (2012), 288-299.
  30. Sharma, A., Belokar, R. and Kumar, S., "Multi-response optimization of al2024/red mud mmc using hybrid taguchi-gra-entropy optimization technique", Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 5, No. 2, (2018), 4748-4760.
  31. Maraki, M., Tagimalek, H., Azargoman, M., Khatami, H. and Mahmoodi, M., "Experimental investigation and statistical modeling of the effective parameters in charpy impact test on az31 magnesium alloy with v-shape groove using taguchi method", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 33, No. 12, (2020), 2521-2529.
  32. Singhal, V. and Pandey, O., "Influence of dual range particle size on wear and friction properties of ilmenite reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite", Silicon, (2022), 1-16.
  33. Morampudi, P., Ramana, V.V., Bhavani, K., Reddy, C.K. and Vikas, K.S.R., "Wear and corrosion behavior of aa6061 metal matrix composites with ilmenite as reinforcement", Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 52, (2022), 1515-1520.
  34. GUPTA, R., NANDA, T. and Pandey, O., "Comparison of wear behaviour of lm13 Al− Si alloy based composites reinforced with synthetic (B4C) and natural (ilmenite) ceramic particles", Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 31, No. 12, (2021), 3613-3625.
  35. Singhal, V. and Pandey, O., "Utilization of natural mineral ilmenite-reinforced composites for the dry sliding application", International Journal of Metalcasting, (2021), 1-19.