Stern Flap Application on Planing Hulls to Improve Resistance

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Naval Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

2 Department of Naval Architecture, Ocean, and Marine Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK


Drag is one of the main factors in improving fuel efficiency. Various study in regards to improve drag performance of a planing hull amongst them is a stern flap. The main parameters to design a stern flap are span length and angle of stern flap. The stern flap works by changing pressure distribution over the ship's bottom and creating a lift force on the stern transom part. This study aims to analyze the behavior of stern flap in variations of span length and angle of stern flap towards drag performance of Fridsma hull form. Finite Volume Method (FVM) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier - Stokes (RANS) are used to predict the hull resistance during simulations. Results show that shear drag is very sensitive towards the total drag value, proving that shear drag valued at least 60% of the total drag in each planing hull multi-phase characteristics phase. Stern flap with 58% of hull breadth span length installed at 0° is considered the most optimal, reducing 10.2% of total drag, followed by 18% displacement reduction. In conclusion, the stern flap effectively improves the Fridsma hull’s total drag and its components on 0.89 < Fr < 1.89.


Main Subjects

  1. Sukas, O.F., Kinaci, O.K., Cakici, F. and Gokce, M.K., "Hydrodynamic assessment of planing hulls using overset grids", Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 65, (2017), 35-46. doi: 10.1016/j.apor.2017.03.015.
  2. Yaakob, O., Shamsuddin, S. and Koh, K.K., "Stern flap for resistance reduction of planing hull craft: A case study with a fast crew boat model", Jurnal Teknologi, (2004), 43–52-43–52. doi: 10.11113/jt.v41.689.
  3. Savitsky, D., "Hydrodynamic design of planing hulls", Marine Technology and SNAME News, Vol. 1, No. 04, (1964), 71-95.
  4. Faltinsen, O.M., "Hydrodynamics of high-speed marine vehicles, Cambridge university press, (2005).
  5. Fridsma, G., A systematic study of the rough-water performance of planing boats. 1969, Stevens Inst of Tech Hoboken NJ Davidson Lab.
  6. Fathuddiin, A. and Samuel, S., "Meshing strategi untuk memprediksi hambatan total pada kapal planing hull", Jurnal Rekayasa Mesin, Vol. 12, No. 2, (2021), 381-390.
  7. Trimulyono, A., Manik, P. and Chrismianto, D., "A numerical study of spray strips analysis on fridsma hull form", Fluids, Vol. 6, No. 11, (2021), 420. doi: 10.3390/fluids6110420.
  8. Ghadimi, P., Loni, A., Nowruzi, H., Dashtimanesh, A. and Tavakoli, S., "Parametric study of the effects of trim tabs on running trim and resistance of planing hulls", Advances in Shipping and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, (2014), 1-12. doi.
  9. Ghassemi, H., Bahrami, H., Vaezi, A. and Ghassemi, M.A., "Minimization of resistance of the planing boat by trim-tab", International Journal of Physics, Vol. 7, No. 1, (2019), 21-26. doi: 10.12691/ijp-7-1-4.
  10. Tagliafierro, B., Mancini, S., Ropero-Giralda, P., Domínguez, J.M., Crespo, A.J. and Viccione, G., "Performance assessment of a planing hull using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method", Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 3, (2021), 244. doi: 10.3390/jmse9030244.
  11. Yousefi, R., Shafaghat, R. and Shakeri, M., "High-speed planing hull drag reduction using tunnels", Ocean engineering, Vol. 84, (2014), 54-60. doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2014.03.033.
  12. Bakhtiari, M., Veysi, S. and Ghassemi, H., "Numerical modeling of the stepped planing hull in calm water", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 29, No. 2, (2016), 236-245. doi: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2016.29.02b.13.
  13. Siemens, P., "Software: Star-ccm+ user guide− version 13.06", Siemens PLM Software, Texas, (2018).
  14. ITTC, Practical guidelines for ship cfd applications. 2011, 26th ITTC Executive Committee Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  15. De Marco, A., Mancini, S., Miranda, S., Scognamiglio, R. and Vitiello, L., "Experimental and numerical hydrodynamic analysis of a stepped planing hull", Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 64, (2017), 135-154. doi: 10.1016/j.apor.2017.02.004.
  16. Dashtimanesh, A., Esfandiari, A. and Mancini, S., "Performance prediction of two-stepped planing hulls using morphing mesh approach", Journal of Ship Production and Design, Vol. 34, No. 03, (2018), 236-248. doi: 10.5957/JSPD.160046.
  17. Gumerov, N.A. and Duraiswami, R., "Fast radial basis function interpolation via preconditioned krylov iteration", SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, Vol. 29, No. 5, (2007), 1876-1899.
  18. Faul, A., Goodsell, G. and Powell, M., "A krylov subspace algorithm for multiquadric interpolation in many dimensions", IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis, Vol. 25, No. 1, (2005), 1-24.
  19. Wheeler, M.P., Matveev, K.I. and Xing, T., "Validation study of compact planing hulls at pre-planing speeds", in Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Vol. 51562, (2018), V002T009A009.
  20. Mousavirad, S.J., Schaefer, G. and Korovin, I., "An effective approach for neural network training based on comprehensive learning", in 2020 25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), IEEE., (2021), 8774-8781.
  21. Kim, D.J., Fathuddiin, A. and Zakki, A.F., "A numerical ventilation problem on fridsma hull form using an overset grid system", in OP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Vol. 1096, (2021), 012041.
  22. Nourghassemi, H., Taghva, H., Molyneux, D. and Ghassemi, H., "Numerical hydrodynamic performance of the stepped planing craft and its step height effect (research note)", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 32, No. 4, (2019), 602-607. doi: 10.5829/ije.2019.32.04a.19.
  23. Zou, J., Lu, S., Jiang, Y., Sun, H. and Li, Z., "Experimental and numerical research on the influence of stern flap mounting angle on double-stepped planing hull hydrodynamic performance", Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 10, (2019), 346. doi: 10.3390/jmse7100346.