Unconfined Compressive Strength Characteristics of Treated Peat Soil with Cement and Basalt Fibre

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Gonbad Kavoos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gonbad Kavoos, Iran


So far many studies have focused on the mechanical behavior of fibre reinforced soils and stabilized soils with conventional chemical stabilizers such as cement and lime; however, very limited researches were conducted on the unconfined compressive strength characteristics of fibre reinforced cement stabilized peat soils. Fibre-reinforcement of a stabilized soil resulted in a significant improvement in the ductility and strength characteristics of weak or soft soils. The main objective of the current study is considering the effects of cement content, fibre content, fibre length and curing time on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of peat soil. The study finds that adding basalt fibre or cement causes a remarkable increase in the UCS values of peat soil. The UCS value of the cement-stabilized sample is observed significantly more than basalt fibre-reinforced ones. However, the sample reinforced with basalt fibers showed more ductile behavior compared to the stabilized sample with cement. The results showed that the increase in UCS values of combined basalt fibre and cement inclusions was more than the increase caused by each of them, individually.


Main Subjects

  1. A. P. Pinheiro, “Architectural Rehabilitation and Sustainability of Green Buildings in Historic Preservation,” HighTech and Innovation Journal, Vol. 1, No. 4, (2020), 172-178. doi: 10.28991/hij-2020-01-04-04.
  2. B. Kalantari, A. Prasad, and B. B. K. Huat, “Peat stabilization using cement, polypropylene and steel fibres,” Geomechanics and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 4, (2010), 321-335. doi: 10.12989/gae.2010.2.4.321.
  3. M. A. Rahgozar and M. Saberian, “Physical and chemical properties of two Iranian peat types,” Mires and Peat, Vol. 16, , (2015), 1-17. http://mires-and-peat.net/media/map16/map_16_07.pdf
  4. M. H. Hoseini, A. Noorzad, and M. Zamanian, “Physical modelling of a strip footing on a geosynthetic reinforced soil wall containing tire shred subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 34, No. 10, (2021), 2266-2279, doi: 10.5829/IJE.2021.34.10A.08.
  5. D. T. Nguyen and V. T. A. Phan, “Engineering properties of soil stabilized with cement and fly ash for sustainable road construction,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 34, No. 12, (2021), 2665-2671, doi: 10.5829/IJE.2021.34.12C.12.
  6. S. D. Turkane and S. K. Chouksey, “Partial Replacement of Conventional Material with Stabilized Soil in Flexible Pavement Design,” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 35, No. 05, (2022), 908-916, doi: 10.5829/ije.2022.35.05b.07.
  7. G. Russo, G. Marone, and L. Di Girolamo, “Hybrid Energy Piles as a Smart and Sustainable Foundation,” Journal of Human, Earth, and Future, Vol. 2, No. 3, (2021), 306-322, doi: 10.28991/hef-2021-02-03-010.
  8. R. Vali, “Water Table Effects on the Behaviors of the Reinforced Marine Soil-footing System,” Journal of Human, Earth, and Future, Vol. 2, No. 3, (2021), 296-305, doi: 10.28991/hef-2021-02-03-09.
  9. S. Hadi Sahlabadi, M. Bayat, M. Mousivand, and M. Saadat, “Freeze–Thaw Durability of Cement-Stabilized Soil Reinforced with Polypropylene/Basalt Fibers,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 9, (2021), 04021232, doi: 10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003905.
  10. M. Salehi, M. Bayat, M. Saadat, and M. Nasri, “Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Cement-Stabilized Soil Blended with Crushed Stone Waste,” Korean Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 6, (2021), 1974-1984, doi: 10.1007/s12205-021-0953-5.
  11. M. R. ShahriarKian, S. Kabiri, and M. Bayat, “Utilization of Zeolite to Improve the Behavior of Cement-Stabilized Soil,” International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, (2021), 35, doi: 10.1007/s40891-021-00284-9.
  12. M. Salehi, M. Bayat, M. Saadat, and M. Nasri, “Prediction of unconfined compressive strength and California bearing capacity of cement- or lime- pozzolan-stabilized soil admixed with crushed stone waste,” Geomechanics and Geoengineering, In Press, (2022), doi: 10.1080/17486025.2022.2040606.
  13. J. S. Yadav and S. K. Tiwari, “A study on the potential utilization of crumb rubber in cement treated soft clay,” Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 9, (2017), 177-191, doi: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.01.001.
  14. N. M. Al-Akhras, M. F. Attom, K. M. Al-Akhras, and A. I. H. Malkawi, “Influence of fibers on swelling properties of clayey soil,” Geosynthetics International, Vol. 15, No. 4, (2008), 304-309 ,doi: 10.1680/gein.2008.15.4.304.
  15. M. Syed, A. GuhaRay, S. Agarwal, and A. Kar, “Stabilization of Expansive Clays by Combined Effects of Geopolymerization and Fiber Reinforcement,” Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series A, Vol. 101, No. 1, (2020), 163-178, doi: 10.1007/s40030-019-00418-3.
  16. P. Ghadir and N. Ranjbar, “Clayey soil stabilization using geopolymer and Portland cement,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 188, (2018), 361-371, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.207.
  17. Y. Liu et al., “Stabilization of expansive soil using cementing material from rice husk ash and calcium carbide residue,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 221, (2019), 1-11,doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.05.157.
  18. P. Sukmak, K. Kunchariyakun, G. Sukmak, S. Horpibulsuk, S. Kassawat, and A. Arulrajah, “Strength and Microstructure of Palm Oil Fuel Ash–Fly Ash–Soft Soil Geopolymer Masonry Units,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 8, (2019), 04019164, doi: 10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0002809.
  19. S. Aryal and P. K. Kolay, “Long-Term Durability of Ordinary Portland Cement and Polypropylene Fibre Stabilized Kaolin Soil Using Wetting–Drying and Freezing–Thawing Test,” International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 1, (2020), 1-15, doi: 10.1007/s40891-020-0191-9.
  20. S. Horpibulsuk, R. Rachan, A. Chinkulkijniwat, Y. Raksachon, and A. Suddeepong, “Analysis of strength development in cement-stabilized silty clay from microstructural considerations,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 24, No. 10, (2010), 2011-2021, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.03.011.
  21. ASTM, “Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils (D 4767 – 95),” ASTM, 2003. https://compass.astm.org/download/D4767.15423.pdf%0Awww.astm.org (accessed May 22, 2017).
  22. L. You, Y. Yue, K. Yan, and Y. Zhou, “Characteristics of cement-stabilized macadam containing surface-treated recycled aggregates,” Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 22, No. 9, (2020), 1-15, doi: 10.1080/14680629.2020.1740771.
  23. B. Kalantari, A. Prasad, and B. B. K. Huat, “Stabilizing peat soil with cement and silica fume,” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 164, No. 1, (2011), 33-39, doi: 10.1680/geng.900044.
  24. S. Boobathiraja, P. Balamurugan, M. Dhansheer, and A. Adhikari, “Study on Strength of Peat Soil Stabilized with Cement and Other Pozzolanic Materials,” International Journal of Civil Engineering Research, Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014): 431-438. Available: http://www.ripublication.com/ijcer.htm
  25. C. Liu, Y. Lv, X. Yu, and X. Wu, “Effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the unconfined compressive strength of straw fiber-reinforced soil,” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 48, No. 4, (2020), 581-590, doi: 10.1016/j.geotexmem.2020.03.004.
  26. X. Bao, Z. Jin, H. Cui, G. Ye, and W. Tang, “Static liquefaction behavior of short discrete carbon fiber reinforced silty sand,” Geosynthetics International, Vol. 27, No. 6, (2020), 606-619, doi: 10.1680/jgein.20.00021.
  27. M. D. Toé Casagrande, M. R. Coop, and N. C. Consoli, “Behavior of a Fiber-Reinforced Bentonite at Large Shear Displacements,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 11, (2006), 1505-1508, doi: 10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(2006)132:11(1505).
  28. M. Mirzababaei, A. Arulrajah, A. Haque, S. Nimbalkar, and A. Mohajerani, “Effect of fiber reinforcement on shear strength and void ratio of soft clay,” Geosynthetics International, Vol. 25, No. 4, (2018), 471-480, doi: 10.1680/jgein.18.00023.
  29. Y. Yilmaz, “Experimental investigation of the strength properties of sand-clay mixtures reinforced with randomly distributed discrete polypropylene fibers,” Geosynthetics International, Vol. 16, No. 5, (2009), 354-363, doi: 10.1680/gein.2009.16.5.354.
  30. A. P. S. Dos Santos, N. C. Consoli, and B. A. Baudet, “The mechanics of fibre-reinforced sand,” Geotechnique, Vol. 60, No. 10, (2010), 791-799, doi: 10.1680/geot.8.P.159.
  31. A. S. Zaimoglu, “Freezing-thawing behavior of fine-grained soils reinforced with polypropylene fibers,” Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 60, No. 1, (2010), 63-65, doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2009.07.001.
  32. D. R. Freitag, “Soil randomly reinforced with fibers,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 112, No. 8, (1986), 823-826, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1986)112:8(823).
  33. X. Lv, H. Zhou, X. Liu, and Y. Song, “Experimental study on the effect of basalt fiber on the shear behavior of cemented sand,” Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 78, No. 24, (2019), 1-13, doi: 10.1007/s12665-019-8737-7.
  34. X. Zhang, X. Gu, J. Lü, and Z. Zhu, “Experiment and simulation of creep performance of basalt fibre asphalt mortar under uniaxial compressive loadings,” Journal of Southeast University (English Edition), Vol. 32, No. 4, , (2016), 472-478, doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1003-7985.2016.04.013.
  35. F. Elgabbas, E. A. Ahmed, and B. Benmokrane, “Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Ribbed Basalt-FRP Bars under Static Loads,” Journal of Composites for Construction, Vol. 21, No. 3, (2017), 04016098, doi: 10.1061/(asce)cc.1943-5614.0000752.
  36. R. Tanzadeh, J. Tanzadeh, M. honarmand, and S. A. Tahami, “Experimental study on the effect of basalt and glass fibers on behavior of open-graded friction course asphalt modified with nano-silica,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 212, (2019), 467-475, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.04.010.
  37. V. Dhand, G. Mittal, K. Y. Rhee, S. J. Park, and D. Hui, “A short review on basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 73, (2015), 166-180, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.12.011.
  38. D. Wang, H. Wang, S. Larsson, M. Benzerzour, W. Maherzi, and M. Amar, “Effect of basalt fiber inclusion on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cement-solidified kaolinite,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 241, (2020), 118085, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118085.
  39. V. Fiore, T. Scalici, G. Di Bella, and A. Valenza, “A review on basalt fibre and its composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 74, (2015), 74-94, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.12.034.
  40. Q. Ma and C. Gao, “Effect of Basalt Fiber on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Cement-Soil in SHPB Test,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 8, (2018), 04018185, doi: 10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0002386.
  41. S. Lin, X. Lei, Q. Meng, and J. Xu, “Properties of biocemented, basalt-fibre-reinforced calcareous sand,” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, Vol. 0, No. 0, (2019), 1-9, doi: 10.1680/jgrim.19.00023.
  42. C. P. Ndepete and S. Sert, “Use of basalt fibers for soil improvement,” Acta Physica Polonica A, Vol. 130, No. 1, (2016), 355-356, doi: 10.12693/APhysPolA.130.355.
  43. M. Saberian and M. A. Rahgozar, “Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilized with shredded waste tyre chips in combination with gypsum, lime or cement,” Mires and Peat, Vol. 18, No. September, (2016), 1-16, doi: 10.19189/MaP.2015.OMB.211.
  44. ASTM, “Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil 1,” ASTM International, 2013. https://www.astm.org/Standards/D2166 (accessed Mar. 19, 2020).
  45. ASTM International, “C109/C109M-05. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 2005. https://www.astm.org/Standards/C109 (accessed Mar. 20, 2020).
  46. US Army Corps of Engineers, “CRD-C260-01 Standard Test Mothod for Tensile Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars,” COE Standards, 2001. https://www.wbdg.org/FFC/ARMYCOE/STANDARDS/crd_c260.pdf (accessed Mar. 20, 2020).
  47. B. han Yang et al., “Strength characteristics of modified polypropylene fiber and cement-reinforced loess,” Journal of Central South University, Vol. 24, No. 3, (2017), 560-568, doi: 10.1007/s11771-017-3458-0.
  48. C. Tang, B. Shi, W. Gao, F. Chen, and Y. Cai, “Strength and mechanical behavior of short polypropylene fiber reinforced and cement stabilized clayey soil,” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 25, No. 3, (2007), 194-202, doi: 10.1016/j.geotexmem.2006.11.002.
  49. Y. Yilmaz and V. Ozaydin, “Compaction and shear strength characteristics of colemanite ore waste modified active belite cement stabilized high plasticity soils,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 155, (2013), 45-53, doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.01.003.
  50. R. Sharma, “Laboratory study on sustainable use of cement-fly ash–polypropylene fiber-stabilized dredged material,” Environment, Development and Sustainability, Vol. 20, No. 5, (2018), 2139-2159, doi: 10.1007/s10668-017-9982-0.
  51. A. Kumar and D. Gupta, “Behavior of cement-stabilized fiber-reinforced pond ash, rice husk ash-soil mixtures,” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 44, No. 3, (2016), 466-474, doi: 10.1016/j.geotexmem.2015.07.010.
  52. R. K. Sharma, “Laboratory study on stabilization of clayey soil with cement kiln dust and fiber,” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 5, (2017), 2291-2302, doi: 10.1007/s10706-017-0245-5.
  53. P. Jongpradist, N. Jumlongrach, S. Youwai, and S. Chucheepsakul, “Influence of Fly Ash on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cement-Admixed Clay at High Water Content,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 1, (2010), 49-58, doi: 10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(2010)22:1(49).
  54. D. Eme, T. Nwofor, and S. Sule, “Correlation between the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) of Stabilized Sand-Cement of the Niger Delta,” International Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 3, (2016), 7-13, doi: 10.14445/23488352/ijce-v3i3p103.