Influencing Parameters of Exterior Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Shear Strength: A Depth Review of Recent Advances

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Civil Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry, India


Beam-Column Joints (BCJ) manage the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms under severe events, blast, earthquakes, and impacts. Thus, they are the critical constituents in a building. Disparate deficiencies, say beam weak on flexure, shear, and column weak in shear, are present in this joint assembly to account for limits in design rule. To analyze the Reinforced Concretes (RC) Beam-Column (BC) connections behaviour, systematic research was performed amid the past '20' years. The influence parameters in favor of the Shear Strength (SS) of external RC-BCJ are investigated here. (a) The Concretes Compressive Strength (CCS), (b) confinement joint by the beam, (c) anchorage length, (d) beam and column reinforcement, and (e) the columns axial load are the '5' main parameters intended for the joint SS, which is found through the outcome. The most considerable correlation to the joint SS was found with the CCS amongst the influence aspects. This study reveals the vital features of the RC-BCJ shear strength. 


Main Subjects

  1. Tumengkol, H. A., Irmawaty, R., Parung, H., and Amiruddin, A. “Precast Concrete Column Beam Connection Using Dowels Due to Cyclic Load.” International Journal of Engineering, Transaction A: Basics, Vol. 35, No. 1, (2022), 102–111.
  2. Hajsadeghi, M., Jalali, M., Chin, C., Zirakian, T., and Bahrebar, M. “Flexural Performance of Fibre Reinforced Concrete with an Optimised Spirally Deformed Steel Fibre.” International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 6, (2021), 1390–1397.
  3. Zhang, H., Wu, J., Jin, F., and Zhang, C. “Effect of corroded stirrups on shear behavior of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams strengthened with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer.” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 161, (2019), 357–368.
  4. Zhang Ju, Yan Changwang, and Jia Jinqing. “Crack resistance capacity of SRUHSC column to RC beam joint under frequent earthquake load.” In 2010 International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering (2010), 1106–1109.
  5. Ghayeb, H. H., Razak, H. A., and Ramli Sulong, N. H. “Performance of dowel beam-to-column connections for precast concrete systems under seismic loads: A review.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 237, (2020), 117582.
  6. Alshaikh, I. M. H., Bakar, B. H. A., Alwesabi, E. A. H., and Akil, H. M. “Experimental investigation of the progressive collapse of reinforced concrete structures: An overview.” Structures, Vol. 25, (2020), 881–900.
  7. Liu, J., Xu, C., Ao, N., Feng, L., and Wu, Z. “Study Artificial Potential Field on the Clash Free Layout of Rebar in Reinforced Concrete Beam – Column Joints.” In 2018 15th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV) (2018), 83–87.
  8. Trapani, F. Di, Malavisi, M., Marano, G. C., Greco, R., and Ferrotto, M. F. “Optimal design algorithm for seismic retrofitting of RC columns with steel jacketing technique.” Procedia Manufacturing, Vol. 44, (2020), 639–646.
  9. Kibria, B. M. G., Ahmed, F., Ahsan, R., and Ansary, M. A. “Experimental investigation on behavior of reinforced concrete interior beam column joints retrofitted with fiber reinforced polymers.” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 1, (2020), 157–171.
  10. Saravanan, J., and Kumaran, G. “Joint shear strength of FRP reinforced concrete beam-column joints.” Open Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, (2011), 89–102.
  11. Kamakshi, S., and Vinu, S. K. “Structural Behavior of Hybrid Reinforced Concrete Exterior Beam Column Joint.” Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 877, (2018), 254–263.
  12. Snehal, A., and Dahake, H. B. “Analysis of Beam Column Joint Subjected to Seismic Lateral Loading.” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 5, (2016), 346–352. Retrieved from
  13. Marimuthu, K., and Kothandaraman, S. “Reverse Cyclic Behaviour of RC Exterior Beam-column Joints with Coupler Anchors: An Experimental Study.” SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering, (2019), 1–6. Retrieved from
  14. Khan, M. I., Al-Osta, M. A., Ahmad, S., and Rahman, M. K. “Seismic behavior of beam-column joints strengthened with ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete.” Composite Structures, Vol. 200, (2018), 103–119.
  15. Mosallam, A., Allam, K., and Salama, M. “Analytical and numerical modeling of RC beam-column joints retrofitted with FRP laminates and hybrid composite connectors.” Composite Structures, Vol. 214, (2019), 486–503.
  16. Pimanmas, A., and Chaimahawan, P. “Cyclic Shear Resistance of Expanded Beam-Column Joint.” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 14, (2011), 1292–1299.
  17. Pampanin, S. “Influence of slab on the seismic response of sub-standard detailed exterior reinforced concrete beam column joints.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Canterbury, (2010). Retrieved from
  18. Santarsiero, G., and Masi, A. “Analysis of slab action on the seismic behavior of external RC beam-column joints.” Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 32, (2020), 101608.
  19. Najafgholipour, M. A., Dehghan, S. M., Dooshabi, A., and Niroomandi, A. “Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections with Governing Joint Shear Failure Mode.” Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 14, No. 7, (2017), 1200–1225.
  20. Najafgholipour, M. A., and Arabi, A. R. “A nonlinear model to apply beam-column joint shear failure in analysis of RC moment resisting frames.” Structures, Vol. 22, (2019), 13–27.
  21. Pan, Z., Guner, S., and Vecchio, F. J. “Modeling of interior beam-column joints for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete frames.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 142, (2017), 182–191.
  22. Zhang, X., and Li, B. “Seismic performance of exterior reinforced concrete beam-column joint with corroded reinforcement.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 228, (2021), 111556.
  23. Choi, H., Jin, K., Matsukawa, K., and Nakano, Y. “Evaluation of equivalent diagonal strut mechanism and shear strength of URM wall in-filled R/C frame.” In Second European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Istanbul, 2014), 1–10.
  24. Mansouri, I., Güneyisi, E. M., and Mosalam, K. M. “Improved shear strength model for exterior reinforced concrete beam-column joints using gene expression programming.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 228, (2021), 111563.
  25. Choi, H., Sanada, Y., and Nakano, Y. “Diagonal Strut Mechanism of URM Wall Infilled RC Frame for Multi Bays.” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 210, (2017), 409–416.
  26. Paul, D., Choi, H., Matsukawa, K., and Nakano, Y. “Development of Diagonal Strut Mechanism of URM Wall Infilled RC Frame for Single and Double-Bays.” Bulletin of ERS, No. 48, (2015), 125–141.
  27. Xue, Z., and Lam, E. S. “A Plane Equivalent Micro-truss Element for Reinforced Concrete Structures” (2019), 1–8.
  28. Lee, S.-J., Eom, T.-S., and Yu, E. “Investigation of Diagonal Strut Actions in Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames.” International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Vol. 15, No. 6, (2021), 1–14.
  29. Wu, Y., Yang, C., Li, G. X., and Zhang, C. M. “Study on Mechanical Performances of Steel Truss Reinforced Concrete Transfer Beam.” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 368–373, (2011), 299–302.
  30. Van den Hoogen, M. G. M. “Beam or truss mechanism for shear in concrete: Problems converting a beam into a truss”, Master thesis, TU Delft Repositories, (2013). Retrieved from
  31. Saleem, K., Razzaq, A.-, Jebur, S. F., and Mohammed, A. H. “Concrete and Steel Strengths Effect on Deep Beams with Reinforced Struts.” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 13, No. 1, (2018), 66–73. Retrieved from
  32. Wang, Y.-C., and Hsu, K. “Truss Analysis for Evaluating the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Moment-Resisting Frames with Poorly Reinforcing Details.” In The 14 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, China, (2008), 1–8. Retrieved from
  33. Murad, Y. “Joint shear strength models for exterior RC beam-column connections exposed to biaxial and uniaxial cyclic loading.” Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 30, (2020), 101225.
  34. Pauletta, M., Di Marco, C., Frappa, G., Somma, G., Pitacco, I., Miani, M., Das, S., and Russo, G. “Semi-empirical model for shear strength of RC interior beam-column joints subjected to cyclic loads.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 224, (2020), 111223.
  35. Wu, G., Jiang, M., Das, D., and Pecht, M. “ACA Curing Process Optimization Based on Curing Degree Considering Shear Strength of Joints.” IEEE Access, Vol. 7, (2019), 182906–182915.
  36. Karthik, M. M., Mander, J. B., and Hurlebaus, S. “Simulating behaviour of large reinforced concrete beam-column joints subject to ASR/DEF deterioration and influence of corrosion.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 222, (2020), 111064.
  37. Khan, M. S., Basit, A., and Ahmad, N. “A simplified model for inelastic seismic analysis of RC frame have shear hinge in beam-column joints.” Structures, Vol. 29, (2021), 771–784.
  38. Gao, X., and Lin, C. “Prediction model of the failure mode of beam-column joints using machine learning methods.” Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 120, (2021), 105072.
  39. Massone, L. M., and Orrego, G. N. “Analytical model for shear strength estimation of reinforced concrete beam-column joints.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 173, (2018), 681–692.
  40. Park, R., and Paulay, T. “Behaviour of reinforced concrete external beam-column joints under cyclic loading.” In Proceedings of the 5th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, Vol. 1, (1973), 772–781.
  41. Leon, R. T. “Anchorage requirements in interior RC Beam-Column joints.” In Proceedings of Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 4, (1988), 591–596.
  42. Pampanin, S., Calvi, G. M., and Moratti, M. “Seismic Behavior of R.C. Beam-Column Joints Designed for Gravity Only”, University of Canterbury, (2002). Retrieved from
  43. Kuang, J. S., and Wong, H. F. “Effects of beam bar anchorage on beam–column joint behaviour.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings, Vol. 159, No. 2, (2006), 115–124.
  44. Murty, C. V. R., Rai, D. C., Bajpai, K. K., and Jain, S. K. “Effectiveness of reinforcement details in exterior reinforced concrete beam-column joints for earthquake resistance.” Structural Journal, Vol. 100, No. 2, (2003), 149–156. Retrieved from
  45. Adibi, M., Marefat, M. S., and Allahvirdizadeh, R. “Nonlinear modeling of cyclic response of RC beam–column joints reinforced by plain bars.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 11, (2018), 5529–5556.
  46. Said, S. H., and Abdul Razak, H. “Structural behavior of RC engineered cementitious composite (ECC) exterior beam–column joints under reversed cyclic loading.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 107, (2016), 226–234.
  47. Marimuthu, K., and Kothandaraman, S. “Review on the Methods o , f Reinforcement Technique in Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column.” International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 01, (2019), 970–987. Retrieved from
  48. Sengupta, P., and Li, B. “Modified Bouc–Wen model for hysteresis behavior of RC beam–column joints with limited transverse reinforcement.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 46, , (2013), 392–406.
  49. Kotsovou, G., and Mouzakis, H. “Seismic design of RC external beam-column joints.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, (2012), 645–677.
  50. Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Su, Y., and Feng, Y. “Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Reinforcement Ratio to Capacity of RC Column to Resist Lateral Impact Loading.” Systems Engineering Procedia, Vol. 1, (2011), 35–41.
  51. El-Gendy, M., and El-Salakawy, E. “Effect of flexural reinforcement type and ratio on the punching behavior of RC slab-column edge connections subjected to reversed-cyclic lateral loads.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 200, (2019), 109703.
  52. Ibrahim, H. A., Fahmy, M. F. M., and Wu, Z. “Numerical study of steel-to-FRP reinforcement ratio as a design-tool controlling the lateral response of SFRC beam-column joints.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 172, (2018), 253–274.
  53. Tobbi, H., Farghaly, A. S., and Benmokrane, B. “Behavior of Concentrically Loaded Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforced Concrete Columns with Varying Reinforcement Types and Ratios.” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 111, No. 2, (2014), 375–386.
  54. Yavas, A., and Goker, C. O. “Impact of Reinforcement Ratio on Shear Behavior of I-Shaped UHPC Beams with and without Fiber Shear Reinforcement.” Materials, Vol. 13, No. 7, (2020), 1525.
  55. Carmo, R.  N.  F.  do,  Costa,  H.,  Gomes,  G.,  and   Valença,    J.  “Experimental  evaluation  of   lightweight   aggregate   concrete  beam-column    joints    with   different   strengths   and


reinforcementratios.” Structural Concrete, Vol. 18, No. 6, (2017), 950–961.

  1. Hassan, M., Fam, A., Benmokrane, B., and Ferrier, E. “Effect of Column Size and Reinforcement Ratio on Shear Strength of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforced Concrete Two-Way Slabs.” ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 114, No. 4, (2017), 937–950.
  2. Karimi, K., Tait, M. J., and El-Dakhakhni, W. W. “Analytical modeling and axial load design of a novel FRP-encased steel–concrete composite column for various slenderness ratios.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 46, (2013), 526–534.
  3. Mogili, S., Kuang, J. S., and Huang, R. Y. C. “Effects of beam–column geometry and eccentricity on seismic behaviour of RC beam–column knee joints.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 5, (2019), 2671–2686.
  4. Halahla, A. M., Abu Tahnat, Y. B., Almasri, A. H., and Voyiadjis, G. Z. “The effect of shape memory alloys on the ductility of exterior reinforced concrete beam-column joints using the damage plasticity model.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 200, (2019), 109676.
  5. Zhao, W., Yang, H., Chen, J., and Sun, P. “A proposed model for nonlinear analysis of RC beam-column joints under seismic loading.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 180, (2019), 829–843.
  6. Kaszubska, M., Kotynia, R., and Barros, J. A. O. “Influence of Longitudinal GFRP Reinforcement Ratio on Shear Capacity of Concrete Beams without Stirrups.” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 193, (2017), 361–368.
  7. Ashour, A. F., and Kara, I. F. “Size effect on shear strength of FRP reinforced concrete beams.” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 60, (2014), 612–620.
  8. You, Z., Chen, X., and Dong, S. “Ductility and strength of hybrid fiber reinforced self-consolidating concrete beam with low reinforcement ratios.” Systems Engineering Procedia, Vol. 1, (2011), 28–34.
  9. Dias-da-Costa, D., Carmo, R. N. F., Graça-e-Costa, R., Valença, J., and Alfaiate, J. “Longitudinal reinforcement ratio in lightweight aggregate concrete beams.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 81, (2014), 219–229.
  10. Osman, B. H., Wu, E., Ji, B., and Abdulhameed, S. S. “Effect of reinforcement ratios on shear behavior of concrete beams strengthened with CFRP sheets.” HBRC Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, (2018), 29–36.
  11. Kassoul, A., and Bougara, A. “Maximum ratio of longitudinal tensile reinforcement in high strength doubly reinforced concrete beams designed according to Eurocode 8.” Engineering Structures, Vol. 32, No. 10, (2010), 3206–3213.
  12. Peng, S., Xu, C., and Liu, X. “Truss-arch model for shear strength of seismic-damaged SRC frame columns strengthened with CFRP sheets.” Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 6, (2019), 1324–1337.
  13. Ferreira, D., Oller, E., Marí, A., and Bairán, J. “Numerical Analysis of Shear Critical RC Beams Strengthened in Shear with FRP Sheets.” Journal of Composites for Construction, Vol. 17, No. 6, (2013), 04013016.