Amelioration Effectiveness of Torque and Rotor Flux Control Applied to the Asynchronous Generator for Dual-rotor Wind Turbine using Neural Third-order Sliding Mode Approaches

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nisantasi University, Istanbul, Turkey


In this paper, a neural third-order sliding mode-direct torque control (NTOSM-DTC) for an asynchronous generator (AG) based dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) is proposed. The classical DTC strategy with traditional proportional-integral (PI) controllers has been widely applied to induction machines in recent years due to the high characteristics that it provides in comparison with the classical DTC switching technique. Meanwhile, it has a major drawback that are the significant current, rotor flux and torque ripples generated by the traditional PI controllers. To overcome these drawbacks, the improvement of this control technique by removing these controllers is designed in this paper. The proposed intelligenet nonlinear control technique is based on replacing the classical PI controllers with neural TOSM controllers which will have the same inputs as these controllers. The simulation was performed in Matlab software, and the results obtained make it possible to evaluate the characteristics of the proposed intelligenet nonlinear control technique over the traditional one.


Main Subjects

  1. Mohan Kumar, P., Sivalingam, K., Lim, T.-C., Ramakrishna, S. and Wei, H.J.C.T., "Strategies for enhancing the low wind speed performance of h-darrieus wind turbine—part 1", Clean Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, (2019), 185-204, doi: 10.3390/cleantechnol1010013
  2. AlGhamdi, S., Hamdan, I., Youssef, M.M. and Noureldeen, O.J.M., "Development and application of fuzzy proportional-integral control scheme in pitch angle compensation loop for wind turbines", Machines, Vol. 9, No. 7, (2021), 135, doi: 10.3390/machines9070135
  3. Alhato, M.M., Ibrahim, M.N., Rezk, H. and Bouallègue, S.J.M., "An enhanced dc-link voltage response for wind-driven doubly fed induction generator using adaptive fuzzy extended state observer and sliding mode control", Mathematics, Vol. 9, No. 9, (2021), 963, doi: 10.3390/math9090963
  4. Zhang, Z., Zhao, Y., Qiao, W. and Qu, L.J.I.T.o.I.A., "A discrete-time direct torque control for direct-drive pmsg-based wind energy conversion systems", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 51, No. 4, (2015), 3504-3514, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2015.2413760
  5. Cortajarena Echeverria, J.A., Barambones Caramazana, O., Alkorta Egiguren, P. and Cortajarena Alcorta, J., "Grid frequency and amplitude control using dfig wind turbines in a smart grid", Mathematics, (2021), doi: 10.3390/math9020143
  6. Iacchetti, M.F., Marques, G.D. and Perini, R.J.I.T.o.P.E., "Torque ripple reduction in a dfig-dc system by resonant current controllers", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 30, No. 8, (2014), 4244-4254, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2360211
  7. Amrane, F., Chaiba, A., Babes, B.E. and Mekhilef, S.J.R.R.S.T.-E.E.E., "Design and implementation of high performance field oriented control for grid-connected doubly fed induction generator via hysteresis rotor current controller", Revue Roumaine Sciences Techniques Electrotechnique Et Energetique, Vol. 61, No. 4, (2016), 319-324.
  8. Alhato, M.M., Bouallègue, S. and Rezk, H.J.M., "Modeling and performance improvement of direct power control of doubly-fed induction generator based wind turbine through second-order sliding mode control approach", Mathematics, Vol. 8, No. 11, (2020), 1-31, doi: 10.3390/math8112012
  9. Djeriri, Y.J.I.J.o.E. and Engineering, E., "Lyapunov-based robust power controllers for a doubly fed induction generator", IJEEE, Vol. 16, No. 4, (2020), 551-558.
  10. Benbouhenni, H. and Bizon, N.J.E., "Terminal synergetic control for direct active and reactive powers in asynchronous generator-based dual-rotor wind power systems", Electronics, Vol. 10, No. 16, (2021), 1880, doi: 10.3390/electronics10161880
  11. Boudjema, Z., Hemici, B. And Yahdou, A.J.J.O.E.E., "Second order sliding mode control of a dual-rotor wind turbine system by employing a matrix converter", Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 3, (2016), 11-11.
  12. Quan, Y., Hang, L., He, Y. and Zhang, Y.J.A.S., "Multi-resonant-based sliding mode control of dfig-based wind system under unbalanced and harmonic network conditions", Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 6, (2019), 1124, doi: 10.3390/app9061124
  13. Ullah, N., Sami, I., Chowdhury, M.S., Techato, K. and Alkhammash, H.I.J.I.A., "Artificial intelligence integrated fractional order control of doubly fed induction generator-based wind energy system", IEEE Access, Vol. 9, (2020), 5734-5748, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3048420
  14. Benbouhenni, H.J.I.J.o.E. and Engineering, E., "Seven-level direct torque control of induction motor based on artificial neural networks with regulation speed using fuzzy pi controller", Iranian Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 1, (2018), 85-94.
  15. Nasr, A., Gu, C., Bozhko, S. and Gerada, C.J.E., "Performance enhancement of direct torque-controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor with a flexible switching table", Energies, Vol. 13, No. 8, (2020), 1907, doi: 10.3390/en13081907
  16. Heidari, H., Rassõlkin, A., Vaimann, T., Kallaste, A., Taheri, A., Holakooie, M.H. and Belahcen, A.J.E., "A novel vector control strategy for a six-phase induction motor with low torque ripples and harmonic currents", Energies, Vol. 12, No. 6, (2019), 1102, doi: 10.3390/en12061102
  17. Boussekra, F. and Makouf, A., "Sensorless speed control of ipmsm using sliding mode observer based on active flux concept", Modelling, Measurement and Control A,, Vol. 93, (2020), 1-4, doi: 10.18280/mmc_a.931-401
  18. Mehedi, F., Yahdou, A., Djilali, A.B. and Benbouhenni, H.J.J.E.d.S.A., "Direct torque fuzzy controlled drive for multi-phase ipmsm based on svm technique", Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Vol. 53, No. 2, (2020), 259-266, doi: 10.18280/jesa.530213
  19. Mondal, S., Kastha, D.J.I.J.o.E. and Electronics, S.T.i.P., "Input reactive power controller with a novel active damping strategy for a matrix converter fed direct torque controlled dfig for wind power generation", IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, Vol. 8, No. 4, (2019), 3700-3711, doi: 10.1109/JESTPE.2019.2938012
  20. Kebbati, Y., "Modular approach for an asic integration of electrical drive controls", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, (2011).
  21. Benbouhenni, H. and Boudjema, Z., "Two-level dtc based on ann controller of dfig using 7-level hysteresis command to reduce flux ripple comparing with traditional command", in 2018 International Conference on Applied Smart Systems (ICASS), IEEE. (2018), 1-8.
  22. Ayrir, W., Ourahou, M., El Hassouni, B., Haddi, A.J.M. and Simulation, C.i., "Direct torque control improvement of a variable speed dfig based on a fuzzy inference system", Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 167, (2020), 308-324, doi: 10.1016/j.matcom.2018.05.014
  23. Benbouhenni, H.J.I.J.o.S.G., "Stator current and rotor flux ripples reduction of dtc dfig drive using fstsmc algorithm", International Journal of Smart Grid, Vol. 3, No. 4, (2019), 226-234, doi:
  24. Benbouhenni, H.J.M.J.o.E.M., "Torque ripple reduction of dtc dfig drive using neural pi regulators", Majlesi Journal of Energy Management‎‎‎‎,, Vol. 8, No. 2, (2019), 21-26.
  25. Kelkoul, B. and Boumediene, A.J.E., "Stability analysis and study between classical sliding mode control (smc) and super twisting algorithm (sta) for doubly fed induction generator (dfig) under wind turbine", Energy‎‎, Vol. 214, (2021), 118871, doi: 10.1016/
  26. Shah, A.P. and Mehta, A.J., "Direct power control of grid-connected dfig using variable gain super-twisting sliding mode controller for wind energy optimization", in IECON 2017-43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE. (2017), 2448-2454.
  27. Azimi, A., Bakhtiari-Nejad, F. and Zhu, W.J.J.o.t.F.I., "Fractional-order control with second-order sliding mode algorithm and disturbance estimation for vibration suppression of marine riser", Journal of the Franklin Institute‎‎‎, Vol. 358, No. 13, (2021), 6545-6565, doi: 10.1016/j.jfranklin.2021.06.022
  28. Shah, A.P. and Mehta, A.J., "Direct power control of dfig using super-twisting algorithm based on second-order sliding mode control", in 2016 14th International Workshop on Variable Structure Systems (VSS), IEEE. (2016), 136-141.
  29. Boudjema, Z., Taleb, R., Djeriri, Y., Yahdou, A.J.T.J.o.E.E. and Sciences, C., "A novel direct torque control using second order continuous sliding mode of a doubly fed induction generator for a wind energy conversion system", Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 2, (2017), 965-975.
  30. Benbouhenni, H. and Bizon, N.J.M., "Improved rotor flux and torque control based on the third-order sliding mode scheme applied to the asynchronous generator for the single-rotor wind turbine", Mathematics, Vol. 9, No. 18, (2021), 2297, doi: 10.3390/math9182297
  31. Almakki, A.N.J., Jbarah, A.A.N., Mazalov, A., Andrey, M.J.M.T.S. and Technologies, "Improved dfig dftc by using a fractional-order super twisting algorithms in wind power application", Transportation Systems and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, (2021), 131-149, doi: 10.17816/transsyst202173131-149
  32. Almakki, A.N.J. and Mazalov, A.A., "Improving the efficiency of direct flux and torque control technology for doubly-fed induction generator with a robust control using modified super-twisting algorithms", Vestnik Gosudarstvennogo universiteta morskogo i rechnogo flota imeni admirala S. O. Ma-karova,, Vol. 13, No. 4, (2021), 586–603,, doi: 10.21821/2309-5180-2021-13-4-586-603.
  33. Benbouhenni, H. and Bizon, N.J.E., "A synergetic sliding mode controller applied to direct field-oriented control of induction generator-based variable speed dual-rotor wind turbines", Energies, Vol. 14, No. 15, (2021), 4437, doi: 10.3390/en14154437
  34. Benbouhenni, H. and Bizon, N.J.E., "Third-order sliding mode applied to the direct field-oriented control of the asynchronous generator for variable-speed contra-rotating wind turbine generation systems", Energies, Vol. 14, No. 18, (2021), 5877, doi: 10.3390/en14185877
  35. Benbouhenni, H. and Bizon, N.J.M., "Advanced direct vector control method for optimizing the operation of a double-powered induction generator-based dual-rotor wind turbine system", Mathematics, Vol. 9, No. 19, (2021), 2403, doi: 10.3390/math9192403
  36. Yahdou, A., Hemici, B., Boudjema, Z.J.T.M.J.o.M. and Control, "Sliding mode control of dual rotor wind turbine system", The Mediterranean Journal of Measurement and Control, Vol. 11, No. 2, (2015), 412-419.
  37. Yahdou, A., Djilali, A.B., Boudjema, Z. and Mehedi, F.J.J.E.d.S.A., "Improved vector control of a counter-rotating wind turbine system using adaptive backstepping sliding mode", Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Vol. 53, No. 5, (2020), 645-651.
  38. Solat, A., Ranjbar, A. and Mozafari, B.J.I.J.o.E., "Coordinated control of doubley fed induction generator virtual inertia and power system oscillation damping using fuzzy logic", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 32, No. 4, (2019), 536-547, doi: 10.5829/ije.2019.32.04a.11
  39. Douadi, T., Harbouche, Y., Abdessemed, R. and Bakhti, I.J.I.J.o.E., "Improvement performances of active and reactive power control applied to dfig for variable speed wind turbine using sliding mode control and foc", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics,, Vol. 31, No. 10, (2018), 1689-1697, doi: 10.5829/ije.2018.31.10a.11
  40. Benbouhenni, H., "Direct active and reactive powers command with third-order sliding mode theory for dfig-based dual-rotor wind power systems", International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 1, (2021), 17-34.
  41. Mazaheri Body, K. and Vaez Zadeh, S.J.I.J.o.E., "On line determination of optimal hysteresis band amplitudes in direct torque control of induction motor drives", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 15, No. 4, (2002), 329-338.
  42. Yaichi, I., Semmah, A., Wira, P. and Djeriri, Y., "Super-twisting sliding mode control of a doubly-fed induction generator based on the svm strategy", Periodica Polytechnica Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vol. 63, No. 3, (2019), 178-190.
  43. Yusoff, N.A.M., Razali, A.M., Karim, K.A., Sutikno, T., Jidin, A.J.I.J.o.P.E. and Systems, D., "A concept of virtual-flux direct power control of three-phase ac-dc converter", International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive System, Vol. 8, No. 4, (2017), 1776, doi: 10.11591/ijpeds.v8i4.pp1776-1784
  44. Boudjema, Z., Meroufel, A., Djerriri, Y. and Bounadja, E., " Fuzzy sliding mode control of a doubly fed induction generator for energy conversion", Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering,, Vol. 6, No. 2, (2013), 7-14.
  45. Fayssal, A., Bruno, F. and Azeddine, "C. Experimental investigation of efficient and simple wind-turbine based on dfig-direct power control using lcl-filter for stand-alone mode", ISA Transactions, (2021), 1-34, doi: 10.1016/j.isatra.2021.07.008
  46. Mazen Alhato, M., Bouallègue, S. and Rezk, H., "Modeling and performance improvement of direct power control of doubly-fed induction generator based wind turbine through second-order sliding mode control approach," Mathematics, Vol. 8, (2020), doi: 10.3390/math8112012
  47. Alhato, M.M., Bouallègue, S.J.M. and Applications, C., "Direct power control optimization for doubly fed induction generator based wind turbine systems", Mathematical and Computational Applications, Vol. 24, No. 3, (2019), 77, doi: 10.3390/mca24030077.
  48. Benbouhenni, H.J.J.o.E.E., Electronics, Control and Science, C., "Intelligent super twisting high order sliding mode controller of dual-rotor wind power systems with direct attack based on doubly-fed induction generators", Journal of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Control and Computer Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, (2021), 1-8.
  49. Mahfoud, S., Derouich, A., EL Ouanjli, N., EL Mahfoud, M. and Taoussi, M.J.S., "A new strategy-based pid controller optimized by genetic algorithm for dtc of the doubly fed induction motor", Systems, Vol. 9, No. 2, (2021), 37, doi: 10.3390/systems9020037
  50. Amrane, F. and Chaiba, A., "A novel direct power control for grid-connected doubly fed induction generator based on hybrid arti ficial intelligent c ontrol with space vector mo dulation", Revue Roumaine Sciences Techniques Electrotechnique Et Energetique, (2018).
  51. El Ouanjli, N., Derouich, A., El Ghzizal, A., Taoussi, M., El Mourabit, Y., Mezioui, K., Bossoufi, B.J.P. and Systems, C.o.M.P., "Direct torque control of doubly fed induction motor using three-level npc inverter", Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, (2019), 1-9, doi: 10.1186/s41601-019-0131-7
  52. Younes, S., Salah, T., Sofia, L.B., Seddik, B., Nasim, U., Ahmad, A.A. and Ali, N.A., "Advanced fuzzy 12 dtc control of doubly fed induction generator for optimal power extraction in wind turbine system under random wind conditions," Vol. 13, (2021), 1-23, doi: 10.3390/su132111593