Characterization of Ceramic Membrane based on Calcium Carbonate from Onyx Stone and Its Application for Coconut Sap Treatment

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Siliwangi University, Tasikmalaya, Indonesia

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Siliwangi University

3 Research Centre for Electronics and Telecommunication, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia

4 Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Haluoleo University, Kendari Indonesia

5 Lab. Plasma Physics and Engineering, Institute of Electronics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria


In this study, the calcium carbonate from onyx stone used as a pore-forming agent in the ceramic membrane of kaolin, zeolite, and silica xerogel composites has been investigated. Four different membrane samples were prepared with varying onyx stone content from 5 wt.% to 30 wt.% into composite and then the prepared samples were sintered at 1200oC. The structural properties of the prepared sample was investigated in detail using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The removal performance of the membrane has been successfully tested during coconut sap treatment. It has been found that the prepared samples have a porous structure made up of interconnected pores and their volume fraction depends on onyx stone content. The sample with the onyx stone content of 30 wt.% provides the largest volume fraction of homogeneously interconnected pores and its presence demontrates the largest value for sap permeate flux and the flux rate in the initial phase. The pores formed in this produced membrane provide favorable conditions for the removal of the non-sugar impurities in the coconut sap


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