Document Type : Original Article
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Siliwangi University, Tasikmalaya, West Java, Indonesia
Research Centre for Electronics and Telecommunication, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Haluoleo University, Kendari Indonesia
Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Institute of Electronics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
In this study, the calcium carbonate from onyx stone used as a pore-forming agent in the ceramic membrane of kaolin, zeolite, and silica xerogel composites were investigated. Four different membrane samples were prepared with varying onyx stone content from 5 wt.% to 30 wt.% into composite and then the prepared samples were sintered at 1200oC. The structural properties of the prepared sample was investigated in detail using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The removal performance of the membrane was successfully tested during coconut sap treatment. It has been found that the prepared samples have a porous structure made up of interconnected pores and their volume fraction depends on onyx stone content. The sample with the onyx stone content of 30 wt.% provides the largest volume fraction of homogeneously interconnected pores and its presence demontrates the largest value for sap permeate flux and the flux rate in the initial phase. The pores formed in this produced membrane provide favorable conditions for the removal of the non-sugar impurities in the coconut sap.