Dry sliding behavior of carbon-based brake pad materials

Document Type : Original Article


Mechanical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, India


The brake pad plays a crucial role in the control of vehicle and machinery equipment and subsequent safety. There is always a need for a new functional material with improved properties than existing ones. The present research study was carried out to develop a new brake pad material made up of polymer nanocomposite for enhanced physical, mechanical, and frictional characteristics in comparison to existing brake pad materials. In this study, polymer nanocomposite samples were developed and their physical properties namely density, water-oil absorption, and porosity were evaluated. Mechanical hardness of developed samples was estimated with Vicker’s hardness tester. Frictional characteristics of samples and wear values determined with pin or disc apparatus. Dry sliding behavior was examined by conducting multiple trials with sliding speed in the span of 2-10 m/s and load were changed from 20 N to 100 N to discuss the effect of velocity, the effect of nominal contact pressure and the effect of sliding distance on friction and temperature parameters. Morphology of prepared brake pad samples was characterized with the Scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron micrographs of brake pad surfaces showed different shape wear debris and plateaus significantly affecting the friction characteristics. Developed samples along with commercial specimens show excellent resistance to water and oil absorption. Thus obtained results for evaluated polymer nanocomposite brake pad samples demonstrate their potential for brake pad applications.


  1. Akhondizadeh, M. fooladi Mahani, S. H. Mansouri, M. Rezaeizadeh, " A New Procedure of Impact Wear evaluation of Mill Liner", Ineternational Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics., Vol. 28, No. 4, (2015), 593-598.
  2. Mehra, M. M. Mahapatra, and S. P. Harsha, “Effect of wear parameters on dry abrasive wear of RZ5-TiC in situ composite,” Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 70, No. 2, (2018), 256-263, doi: 10.1108/ILT-12-2016-0306.
  3. R. Jaafar, N. I. Ismail, M. F. Ismail, and E. A. Othman, “Influence of steel fibres on friction behaviours with respect to speed, pressure and temperature Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 69, No. 3, (2017), 420-424, doi: 10.1108/ILT-09-2016-0230.
  4. Aranganathan, V. Mahale, and J. Bijwe, “Effects of aramid fiber concentration on the friction and wear characteristics of non-asbestos organic friction composites using standardized braking tests,” Wear, Vol. 354-355, (2016), 69-77, doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2016.03.002.
  5. Singh and A. Patnaik, “Performance assessment of lapinus-aramid based brake pad hybrid phenolic composites in friction braking,” Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering., Vol. 15, No. 1, (2015), 151-161, doi: 10.1016/j.acme.2014.01.009.
  6. Capela, S. E. Oliveira, and J. A. M. Ferreira, “Mechanical behavior of high dosage short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites,” Fibers and Polymers, Vol. 18, No. 6, (2017), 1200-1207, doi: 10.1007/s12221-017-7246-0.
  7. Ahmadijokani, Y. Alaei, A. Shojaei, M. Arjmand, and N. Yan, “Frictional behavior of resin-based brake composites: Effect of carbon fibre reinforcement,” Wear, Vol. 420-421, (2019), 108-115, doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2018.12.098.
  8. W. Khun, H. Zhang, L. H. Lim, C. Y. Yue, X. Hu, and J. Yang, “Tribological properties of short carbon fibers reinforced epoxy composites,” Friction, Vol. 2, No. 3, (2014), 226-239, doi: 10.1007/s40544-014-0043-5.
  9. Y. Yang Yang, S.Y., Lin, W.N., Huang, Y.L., Tien, H.W., Wang, J.Y., Ma, C.C.M., Li, S.M. and Wang, Y.S., “Synergetic effects of graphene platelets and carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy composites,” Carbon, Vol. 49, No. 3, (2011), 793-803, doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2010.10.014.
  10. V. Saindane, S. Soni, and J. V. Menghani, “Studies on mechanical properties of brake friction materials derived from carbon fibres reinforced polymer composite,” Materials. Today Proceedings., (2021), doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2021.04.079.
  11. Thiyagarajan, “Controlling the Hardness and Tribological Behaviour of Non-asbestos Brake Lining Materials for Automobiles,” Carbon Letters, Vol. 5, No. 1, (2004), 6-11,
  12. Ünaldı and R. Kuş, “The Determination of the Effect of Mixture Proportions and Production Parameters on Density and Porosity Features of Miscanthus Reinforced Brake Pads by Taguchi Method,” International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies, Vol. 7, No. 1, (2018), 48-57, doi: 10.18245/ijaet.438047.
  13. D. 50 on permanence properties ASTM committe on D-20 on plastics, “Standard test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics,” American Society for Testing and Materials. (1995).
  14. Japan Industrial standard, “Test procedures of Porosity for Brake Linings and Pad Formulations. JIS D 4418.” (1996).
  15. W. Liew and U. Nirmal, “Frictional performance evaluation of newly designed brake pad materials,” Materials and Design, Vol. 48, (2013), 25-33, doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2012.07.055.
  16. Menapace, M. Leonardi, V. Matějka, S. Gialanella, and G. Straffelini, “Dry sliding behavior and friction layer formation in copper-free barite containing friction materials,” Wear, Vol. 398-399, (2018), 191-200, doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2017.12.008.
  17. Sellami, M. Kchaou, R. Elleuch, A. L. Cristol, and Y. Desplanques, “Study of the interaction between microstructure, mechanical and tribo-performance of a commercial brake lining material,” Materials and Design, Vol. 59, (2014), 84-93, doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2014.02.025.
  18. Shojaei, M. Arjmand, and A. Saffar, “Studies on the friction and wear characteristics of rubber-based friction materials containing carbon and cellulose fibers,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 46, No. 6, (2011), 1890-1901, doi: 10.1007/s10853-010-5022-2.
  19. Wei, Y. S. Choy, C. S. Cheung, and D. Jin, “Tribology performance, airborne particle emissions and brake squeal noise of copper-free friction materials,” Wear, (2020), 448-449. doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2020.203215.
  20. Österle, Dörfel, I., Prietzel, C., Rooch, H., Cristol-Bulthé, A.L., Degallaix, G. and Desplanques, Y., “A comprehensive microscopic study of third body formation at the interface between a brake pad and brake disc during the final stage of a pin-on-disc test,” Wear, Vol. 267, No. 5-8, (2009), 781-788, doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2008.11.023.
  21. S. M. EL-Tayeb and K. W. Liew, “On the dry and wet sliding performance of potentially new frictional brake pad materials for automotive industry,” Wear, Vol. 266, No. 1-2, (2009), 275-287, doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2008.07.003.
  22. Elzayady and R. Elsoeudy, “Microstructure and wear mechanisms investigation on the brake pad,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Vol. 11, (2021), 2314-2335, doi: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.02.045.
  23. J. Moffat, “Describing the uncertainties in experimental results,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, (1988), 3-17, doi: 10.1016/0894-1777(88)90043-X.
  24. J. Gbadeyan, K. Kanny, and T. P. Mohan, “Influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotube and short carbon fibre composition on tribological properties of epoxy composites,” Tribology-Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Vol. 11, No. 2, (2017), 59-65, doi: 10.1080/17515831.2017.1293763.
  25. W. Hee and P. Filip, “Performance of ceramic enhanced phenolic matrix brake lining materials for automotive brake linings,” Wear, Vol. 259, No. 7-12, (2005), 1088-1096, doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2005.02.083.
  26. ÖZtüRk, F. Arslan, and S. Öztürk, “Effects of different kinds of fibers on mechanical and tribological properties of brake friction materials,” Tribology Transactions, Vol. 56, No. 4, (2013), 536-545, doi: 10.1080/10402004.2013.767399.