Mode I fracture toughness of Carbon/glass hybrid comopsite

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Production Engineering and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt


Mode I fracture toughness of carbon/ glass reinforced polyster hybrid composite was invesitigated expermrntally and numerically by using the cosmos)/m 2.6 finite element software (fms) by utulizing the hand laup techniqe)(HLU). The single edge notch bending (SENB) test was developed to evalute the mode l fracture toughness of carbon composites, glass composite and hybrid compodite materials at varuos fiber configurations. Scaning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the fracture surface of the hybrid composite material under the effect of mode l loading. the expermental result showed the maximum stress intensity (sif) factor 882mpa. mm1/2. obtained in the hybrid composite with stacking dequencess (c/g/g/c) during the mode l loading compared to other stacking sequences. this is attributed to the goid interfical between the carbon and glass fibers and matrix face. From the resukts, it was suggested that the expermental results is a goid a gremnent with the finite element modelling



    1. Artemenko, S.E. and Kadykova, Y.A., "Hybrid composite materials", Fibre Chemistry, Vol. 40, No. 6, (2008), 490-492, doi.
    2. Vanu Madhav, V., Gupta, A. and More, S., "Study of the fracture behavior under the effect of cross-ply and angle-ply arrangement of frp composite laminate subjected to central circular cut-out with mechanical and thermal loading conditions", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 34, No. 6, (2021), 1523-1529, doi: 10.5829/ije.2021.34.06c.16.
    3. El-wazery, M., "Mechanical characteristics and novel applications of hybrid polymer composites-a review", Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 2, (2017), 666-675, doi.
    4. Gururaja, M. and Rao, A.H., "A review on recent applications and future prospectus of hybrid composites", International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 6, (2012), 352-355.
    5. Zhu, X.-K. and Joyce, J.A., "Review of fracture toughness (g, k, j, ctod, ctoa) testing and standardization", Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 85, (2012), 1-46, doi: org/10.1217/j.korsoceng.404.03.001.
    6. Park, H.-S., Lee, W.-H., Keum, J.-H., Choi, J.-H., Koo, J.-M. and Seok, C.-S., "The evaluation of fracture toughness for woven carbon fibered reinforced composite materials", Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 10, (2010), 69-76, doi: org/10.1217/j.korsoceng.404.03.001.
    7. Nasuha, N., Azmi, A. and Tan, C., "A review on mode-i interlaminar fracture toughness of fibre reinforced composites", in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing. Vol. 908, No. 1, (2017), 012024.
    8. Moore, D.R., Williams, J. and Pavan, A., "Fracture mechanics testing methods for polymers, adhesives and composites, Elsevier, (2001).
    9. Zhang, J., Chaisombat, K., He, S. and Wang, C.H., "Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with glass/carbon woven fabrics for lightweight load bearing structures", Materials & Design (1980-2015), Vol. 36, (2012), 75-80, doi: org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.11.006.
    10. Huddhar, A., Desai, A., Sharanaprabhu, C., Kudari, S.K. and Gouda, P.S., "Studies on effect of pre-crack length variation on inter-laminar fracture toughness of a glass epoxy laminated composite", in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing. Vol. 149, No. 1, (2016), 012161.
    11. Jung, H. and Kim, Y., "Mode i fracture toughness of carbon-glass/epoxy interply hybrid composites", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 5, (2015), 1955-1962, doi: 10.1007/s12206-015-0416-3.
    12. Arasan, Ş., Aktaş, M. and Balcıoğlu, H.E., "Fracture toughness of woven glass and carbon reinforced hybrid and non‐hybrid composite plates", Polymer Composites, Vol. 39, No. 3, (2018), 783-793, doi: 10.1002/pc.23999.
    13. Gouda, P.S., Kudari, S., Prabhuswamy, S. and Jawali, D., "Fracture toughness of glass-carbon (0/90) s fiber reinforced polymer composite–an experimental and numerical study", Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 08, (2011), 671.
    14. Subagia, I.A., Tijing, L.D. and Atmika, K.A., "Mode i fracture toughness of interply hybrid epoxy composite reinforced with carbon-basalt fibers", Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 58 (2014) 611-617.
    15. Santhanam, V., Chandrasekaran, M., Venkateshwaran, N. and Elayaperumal, A., "Mode i fracture toughness of banana fiber and glass fiber reinforced composites", in Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publ. Vol. 622, (2013), 1320-1324.
    16. Harikrishnan, K. and Deviprasad, V., "Mode i fracture toughness of jute/glass fiber hybrid composite—an experimental and numerical study", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 6, (2015), 307-310, doi: 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V28P259.
    17. Ghafaar, M.A., Mazen, A. and El-Mahallawy, N., "Behavior of woven fabric reinforced epoxy composites under bending and compressive loads", JES. Journal of Engineering Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 2, (2006), 453-469.
    18. Raj, S.S., Reddy, P.R. and Vincent, E., "Numerical and experimental investigation of effect of stacking sequence on the fracture parameters of composite materials".
    19. Kaleemulla, K.M. and Siddeswarappa, B., "Plane strain fracture behaviour of fabric reinforced hybrid composites under varied notch configurations", Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 06, (2009), 495, doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.86043.
    20. Low, K., Teng, S., Johar, M., Israr, H. and Wong, K., "Mode i delamination behaviour of carbon/epoxy composite at different displacement rates", Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 176, (2019), 107293, doi: org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.107293.
    21. Szekrényes, A. and Uj, J., "Analysis of the interlaminar crack initiation in mixed-mode i+ ii composite fracture specimens", Periodica Polytechnica Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 47, No. 2, (2003), 103-118.
    22. El-Menshawy, O., El-Sissy, A., El-Wazery, M. and Elsad, R., "Electrical and mechanical performance of hybrid and non-hybrid composites", International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 4, (2019), 580-586, doi: 10.5829/ije.2019.32.04a.16
    23. El-Wazery, M., El-Elamy, M. and Zoalfakar, S., "Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polyester composites", International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 3, (2017), 121-131, doi: 10.6703/IJASE.2017.14 (3).121.
    24. EL-Wazery, M., EL-Kelity, A. and Elsad, R., "Effect of water absorption on the tensile characteristics of natural/synthetic fabrics reinforced hybrid composites", International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 11, (2020), 2339-2446, doi: 10.5829/ije.2020.33.11b.24.
    25. ASTM, I., "Standard test methods for plane-strain fracture toughness and strain energy release rate of plastic materials", ASTM D5045-99, (2007).
    26. Chow, W. and Atluri, S., "Stress intensity factors as the fracture parameters for delamination crack growth in composite laminates", Computational Mechanics, Vol. 21, No. 1, (1998), 1-10.
    27. Prasad, M.S., Venkatesha, C. and Jayaraju, T., "Experimental methods of determining fracture toughness of fiber reinforced polymer composites under various loading conditions", Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 13, (2011), 1263.
    28. Divaka, M., Lashkari, M. and Cosmos, M., Structural research and analysis corporation. 1993, Santa Monica, CA.