An Application of Fuzzy-VIKOR Method in Environmental Impact Assessment of the Boog Mine Southeast of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


Faculty of Industry & Mining (Khash), University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran


Mining activities are one of the essential environmental challenges. Rating the environmental components (ECs) that affect by mining activities is a strategic guide for Environmental-Impact-Assessment (EIA). VlseKriterijumska- Optimizacija- I- Kompromisno- Resenje (VIKOR) method is developed as an efficient decision-making method to assess the impacts of the granite quarry Boog (in Southeast of Iran) on the environment. VIKOR method focuses on quantifying the effect of each impacting factor (IF) on each designed EC. This paper represents an evaluation method relying on fuzzy numbers in decision methods to carry out the lack of certainty and ambiguity from experts’ subjective knowledge and experience. Shannon entropy theory is used to adjust subjective weights defined by decision makers to objective weights. The results catched through ranking the R, S and Q indices. In this case, the Air quality (R= 0.05, S= 0.16, Q= -0.05) is available as the more important EC that affected by the mining activities contaminations. Compareing the results with standard matrix method confirm that the Air quality has been effected more than the other parameters with 33.63%. Fuzzy-VIKOR is a systematic approach, which can easily extend to deal with quantitative environmental analysis and other mining engineering selection problems.


  1. Saffari, A., Ataei, M., Sereshki, F., Naderi, M. “Environmental impact assessment (EIA) by using the Fuzzy Delphi Folchi (FDF) method (case study: Shahrood cement plant, Iran)”  Environment, Development and Sustainability Vol. 21, (2017), 817-860. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-017-0063-1
  2. Kakha, G. H., Tabasi, S., Jami, M., Danesh Narooei, Kh. “Evaluation of the Impacting Factors on Sustainable Mining Development, Using the Grey-Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Approach.” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 32, No. 10, (2019), 1497-1505. DOI: 10.5829/ije.2019.32.10a.20  
  3. Owen, J.R., Kemp, D., Extractive Relations: Countervailing Power and the Global Mining Industry. Sheffield, UK. 2017.
  4. Dubiński, J. “Sustainable development of mining mineral resources.” Journal of Sustainable Mining, Vol. 12, No. 1, (2013), 1-6. DOI: 10.7424/jsm130102
  5. Farjana, S. H., Huda, N., Mahmud, M.A. P., Saidur, R. “A review on the impact of mining and mineral processing industries through life cycle assessment” Journal of Cleaner Production Vol. 231, (2019), 1200-1217. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.264
  6. Kaya, T., Kahraman C. “An integrated fuzzy AHP-ELECTRE methodology for environmental impact assessment.” Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 38, No. 7, (2011), 8553-8562,  DOI:10.1016/j.eswa.2011.01.057
  7. da Silva Dias, A.M., Fonseca, A., Paglia, A.P. “Technical quality of fauna monitoring programs in the environmental impact assessments of large mining projects in southeastern Brazil.” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 650, (2019), 216-223. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.425
  8. Glasson, J., Therivel, R., Chadwick, A. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment, 3rd Edition, Routledge, London and New York, 2005.
  9. Morris, P., Therivel, R. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment, Taylor & Francis, 2001.
  10. Leopold, L.B., Clarke, F.E., Hanshaw, B.B. A Procedure for Evaluating Environmental Impact. United States Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, 1971.
  11. Josimovic, B., Petric, J., Milijic, S. “The use of the Leopold matrix in carrying out the EIA for wind farms in Serbia.” Energy and Environment Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, (2014), 43. DOI: 10.5539/eer.v4n1p43
  12. Pastakia, C. M. R. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM)—a new tool for environmental impact assessment. In Environmental impact assessment using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM), K. Jensen; Fredensborg: Olsen & Olsen, 1998.
  13. Pastakia, C. M. R., Jensen, A. “The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) for EIA.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 18, (1998), 461-482. DOI: 10.1016/S0195-9255(98)00018-3
  14. Phillips, J. “Evaluating the level and nature of sustainable development for a geothermal power plant.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 8, (2010), 2414-2425. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2010.05.009
  15. Folchi, D. I. R. “Environmental impact statement for mining with explosives: A quantitative method”, in 29th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, (2003).
  16. Mohebalia, S., Maghsoudy, S., Doulati Ardejani, F. “Application of data envelopment analysis in environmental impact assessment of a coal washing plant: A new sustainable approach” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 83, (2020), 106389. DOI: 10.1016/j.eiar.2020.106389
  17. Wang, N., Wei, D. “A modified D numbers methodology for environmental impact assessment” Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol. 24, (2018), 653-669. DOI: 10.3846/20294913.2016.1216018
  18. Parkin, J. “A philosophy for multiattribute evaluation in environmental impact assessments” Geoforum, 1992, 23, 467-475.  DOI: 10.1016/0016-7185(92)90003-M
  19. Zhao, H. X., Zhang, X. Q. “Building index system of tourism environmental impact assessment in the Desert Park based on intuitionistic fuzzy multiple attribute decision making method” Issues of Forestry Economics, Vol. 37, No. 2, (2017), 55-60.
  20. Tseng, M. L., Wu, K. J., Lee, C. H., Lim, K. M., Bui, T. D., Chen, C. C. “Assessing sustainable tourism in Vietnam: a hierarchical structure approach” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 195, (2018), 406-417. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.198
  21. Shemshadi, A., Shirazi, H., Toreihi, M., Tarokh, M.J. “A fuzzy VIKOR method for supplier selection based on entropy measure for objective weighting” Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 38, (2011), 12160-12167. DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2011.03.027
  22. Opricovic, S. Multicriteria Optimization of Civil Engineering Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia, 1998.
  23. Opricovic, S., Tzeng, G. H. “Multicriteria planning of post-earthquake sustainable reconstruction” Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 3, (2002), 211-220. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8667.00269



  1. Opricovic, S., Tzeng, G.H. “Compromise solution by MCDM methods: a comparative analysis of VIKOR and TOPSIS” European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 156, No. 2, (2004), 445-455. DOI: 10.1016/S0377-2217(03)00020-1
  2. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R., Heydar, M., Mousavi, S.M. “An integrated AHP-VIKOR methodology for plant location selection” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 24, No. 2, (2011), 127- 137.
  3. Zeleny, M. Multiple criteria decision making. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill, 1982.
  4. Zhu, G.-N., Hu, J., Qi, J., Gu, C. C., Peng, Y. H. “An integrated AHP and VIKOR for design concept evaluation based on rough number” Advanced Engineering Informatics, Vol. 29, (2015), 408-418. DOI: 10.1016/j.aei.2015.01.010
  5. Tzeng, G. H., Lin, C. W., Opricovic, S. “Multi-criteria analysis of alternative fuel buses for public transportation” Energy Policy, Vol. 33, (2005), 1373-1383. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2003.12.014
  6. Zadeh, L. A. “Fuzzy sets” Information Control, Vol. 8, (1965), 338-353. DOI:10.1016/S0019-9958(65)90241-X
  7. Bellman, R. E., Zadeh, L. A. “Decision-making in a fuzzy environment” Management Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, (1970), 141-164. DOI:10.1287/mnsc.17.4.B141
  8. Bevilacqua, M., Ciarapica, F., Giacchetta, G. “A fuzzy-QFD approach to supplier selection” Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol. 12, No. 1, (2006), 14-27. DOI:10.1016/j.pursup.2006.02.001
  9. Wang, T. C., Lee, H. D. “Developing a fuzzy TOPSIS approach based on subjective weights and objective weights” Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 36, (2009), 8980-8985. DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2008.11.035
  10. Mirauda, D., Ostoich, M. “MIMR Criterion Application: Entropy Approach to Select the Optimal Quality Parameter Set Responsible for River Pollution” Sustainability, Vol. 12, (2020), 2078. DOI: 10.3390/su12052078
  11. Lihong, M., Yanping, Z., Zhiwei, Z. “Improved VIKOR algorithm based on AHP and Shannon entropy in the selection of thermal power enterprise’s coal suppliers”, International conference on information management, innovation management and industrial engineering, (2008).
  12. Ataei, M., Tajvidi Asr, E., Khalokakaie, R., Ghanbari, K., Tavakoli Mohammadi, M. R. “Semi-quantitative environmental impact assessment and sustainability level determination of coal mining using a mathematical model” Journal of Mining and Environment, Vol. 7, No. 2, (2016), 185-193. DOI: 10.22044/jme.2016.515
  13. Mirmohammadi, M., Gholamnejad, J., Fattahpour, V., Seyedsadri P, Ghorbani Y. “Designing of an environmental assessment algorithm for surface mining projects” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 90, (2009), 2422-2435. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.12.007
  14. Liu, Y. C., Chen, C. S. “A new approach for application of rock mass classification on rock slope stability assessment” Engineering Geology, Vol. 89, (2007a), 129-143. DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.09.017
  15. Liu, Y. C., Chen, C. S. “A new approach to classification base on association rule mining” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 42, (2007b), 674-689. DOI: 10.1016/j.dss.2005.03.005
  16. Kakha, G. H., Tabasi, S., Docheshmeh Gorgij, A., Jami, M. “Environmental impact assessment and sustainability level determination of Boog Granite Mine using Philips model” Journal of Natural Environmental Hazards, Vol.08, No. 22, (2020), 199-212.  DOI: 10.22111/JNEH.2019.28328.1488