Simple Slope Stabilization on Quartz Sandstone using Horizontal Drain

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Mining Engineering, Institut Teknologi Nasional Yogyakarta, Indonesia


The maintaining stability of public facilities, especially public roads, it is very necessary, so the stabilization efforts must be carried out. The water from seepage that comes out of sandstone layer carries material with fine particles, it causes the rock cohesion to decrease and thus leading to scouring. As a result of the scouring, the layer becomes overstep and can disturb road stability. This study was conducted to provide simple but measurable recommendation for maintaining road stability after the previous stabilization effort failed. The method used a fluid mechanics approach in which water from the formation was given space to come out of the formation without carrying fine particles (cement). The analysis was carried out using the finite element method by installing horizontal drain pipe. The result of analysis shows that the horizontal drain installation helps water to come out without creating an overstep layer. The recommended horizontal drain is 8 m long with a slope of at least 3% and a length of 1 m that must enter the sandstone formation as a water source. With this method, the road stability can be maintained and the stabilization can be carried out in an easy, inexpensive, and applicable way.


  1. Tao, Y. Z., Xi, D. Y. “Rule of Transient Phreatic Flow Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Seepage”. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 27, No. 1, (2006), 59-65. DOI: 10.1007/s10483-006-0108-1
  2. Price, J., “Implications of Groundwater Behaviour on the Geomechanics of Rock Slope Stability”, in 1st Asia Pacific Slope Stability in Mining Conference, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, (2016), 25-48.
  3. Reano, E., Beale, G., Dowling, J., Tejada, L. C., Lacey, M., Hazwezwe, H., “Development of A Mine Dewatering and Pit Slope Depressurisation Review Process”, in International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering 2020, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, (2020), 1253-1266.
  4. Rahardjo, H., Hritzuk, K. J., Leong, E. C. Rezaur, R. B. “Effectiveness of Horizontal Drains for Slope Stability”. Engineering Geology, Vol. 69, No. 3-4, (2003), 295-308. DOI: 10.1016/S0013-7952(02)00288-0
  5. Hill, K., Hodgkinson, R., Harris, D., Newell-Price, P., Field drainage guide: principles, installations and maintenance. Warwickshire: Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, 2018.
  6. Hamedi, A., Marundi, S. M. “Laboratory Studies on the Effect of Vertical Gravel Column Drains on Liquefaction Potential”. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 24, No. 3, (2011), 209-224. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2011.24.03b.02
  7. Rahardjo, H., Santoso, V. A., Leong, E. C., Ng, Y. S., Hua, C. J. “Performance of Horizontal Drains in Residual Soil Slopes”. Soils and Foundations, Vol. 51, No. 3, (2011), 437-447. DOI: 10.3208/sandf.51.437
  8. Campbell, R., Mackie, D., Anderson, W. S., “Integrated Slope Stability Assessment in A Complex Geotechnical and Hydrogeological Setting”, in International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering 2013, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, (2013), 555-567.
  9. Rahmannejad, R., Toufigh, V. “Influence of Curing Time and Water Content on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Sand Stabilized Using Epoxy Resin”. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 31, No. 8, (2018), 1187-1195. DOI: 10.5829/ije.2018.31.08b.05
  10. Mousavi, S. “Effect of Moisture Content on Shear Strength of Offshore Clay Interface Steel Surface”. International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 29, No. 2, (2016), 183-191. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2016.29.02b.07
  11. Grimstad, G., Amiri, S. A. G., Nordal, S. “Relations and Links Between Soil Mechanics Porous Media Physics, Physiochemical Theroy and Effective Medium Theory”. Frontiers in Physics,Vol. 7, Article 41, 1-10. DOI: 10.3389/fphy.2019.00041
  12. Rott, N. “Note on the History of the Reynolds Number”. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 22, No. 1, (1990), 1-12. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.fl.22.010190.000245
  13. Erskine, W. D. “Channel Response to Large-Scale River Training Works: Hunter River, Australia”. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management, Vol. 7, No. 3, (1992), 261-278. DOI: 10.1002/RRR.3450070305
  14. Shao, X., Wang, H., Wang, Z. “Interbasin Transfer Projects and Their Implications: A China Case Study”. International Journal of River Basin Management, Vol. 1, No. 1, (2003), 5-14. DOI: 10.1080/15715124.2003.9635187
  15. Yevjevich, V. “Water Diversions and Interbasin Transfers”. Water International, Vol. 26, No. 3, (2001), 342-348. DOI: 10.1080/02508060108686926
  16. McEwan, A. L., “The Failure of and Remedials to A River Diversion for An Opencast Mine In The Witbank Coalfields of South Africa”, in International Mine Water Association Congress 1999, International Mine Water Association, (1999), 79-85. Retrieved January 30, 2021, from
  17. Riyadi, F. A., Cahyadi, T. A., Nurkhamim, Supandi. “Desain Saluran Terbuka Berbasis Microsoft Excel Perhitungan dan Pemodelan yang Praktis dan Efisien”. Kurvatek, Vol. 4, No. 2, (2019), 61-78. DOI: 10.33579/krvtk.v4i2.1563
  18. Flatley, A., Rutherfurd, I. D., Hardie, R. “River Channel Relocation: Problems and Prospects”. Water, Vol. 10, No. 10, 1360, (2018), 1-25. DOI: 10.3390/w10101360
  19. Supandi, Zakaria, Z., Sukiyah, E., Sudradjat, A. “The Correlation of Exposure Time and Claystone Properties at The Warukin Formation Indonesia”. International Journal of Geomate, Vol. 15, No. 52, (2018), 160-167. DOI: 10.21660/2018.52.68175
  20. Supandi, Zakaria, Z., Sukiyah, E., Sudradjat, A. “The Influence of Kaolinite-Illite toward Mechanical Properties of Claystone”. Open Geosciences, Vo.11, No. 1, (2019), 440-446. DOI: 10.1515/geo-2019-0035
  21. Supandi, Hartono, H. G. “Geomechanic Properties and Provenance Analysis of Quartz Sandstone from The Warukin Formation”. International Journal of Geomate, Vol. 18, No. 66, (2020), 140-149. DOI: 10.21660/2020.66.50081
  22. Supandi, Hidayat, H., “The Impact of Geometry Bedding toward Slope Stability in Coal Mining”, in 4th International Symposium on Geotechnical Safety Risk 2013, Geotechnical Safety Network, (2013), 559-562.
  23. Supandi, Zakaria, Z., Sukiyah, E., Sudradjat, A. “New Constants of Fracture Angle on Quartz Sandstone”. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 10, No. 4, (2020). DOI: 10.18517/ijaseit.10.4.8272
  24. Supandi, “Determination Material Properties on Bedding Contact at The Low-Wall Part of Coal Mine”, in ISRM European Rock Mechanics Symposium 2014, ISRM, (2014), 903-907.