Presenting a New Method for Earthquake Relief Center Location Allocation based on Whale Optimization Algorithm

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Maybod Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maybod, Iran


This research describes an optimization and rejuvenation of the heat treatment process for a nickel base superalloy grade GTD111 after long-term service. The aging heat treatment variables examined in this study included primary aging temperature, primary aging time, secondary aging temperature, and secondary aging time. The resulting materials were examined using Taguchi method design of experiments to determine the resulting material hardness test and observed with the hot tensile test, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results showed what happens following optimization with the heat treatment parameters of a primary aging temperature of 1120 °C, primary aging time of 3 h, secondary aging temperature of 845 °C, and secondary aging time of 24 h. The material, after rejuvenation heat treatment via optimization with γ′ particle characteristics, had a coarse square shape, spherical shape of γ′, and fine γ′ precipitate distributed on the parent phase, which affects the mechanical properties of the material. fine γ′ precipitate distributed on parent phase, which affects the mechanical properties of the material.


  1. A.B. Esanab, V. Ehiaguinab, C. Awosopeb, L. Olatomiwac and D. Egbunea, “Data-based investigation on the performance of an independent gas turbine for electricity generation using real power measurements and other closely related parameters”, Data in Brief, Vol. 26, (2019), 1-16, https://doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104444.
    1. Matthew J. et al. 2002, Superalloy A Technical Guide, ASM International Publications, Ohio, 2000.
    2. J.R. Davis, ASM specialty Handbook Nickel Cobalt and Their Alloy, ASM International Publications, Ohio, 2000.
    3. M. Perrut, P. Caron, M. Thomas and A. Couret,, “High temperature materials for aerospace applications: Ni-based superalloys and γ-TiAl alloys” , Comptes Rendus Physique, Vol. 19, (2018), 657-671,
  2. B. Salehnasab, E. Poursaeidi, S.A. Mortazavi and G.H. Farokhian, “Hot corrosion failure in the first stage nozzle of a gas turbine engine”, Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 60, (2016), 316-325,
  3. P. Zhangab, J. Lic, X. F. Gongd,Y. Yuana, Y.F. Gua, J.C. Wangb, J.B. Yana and H.F. Yina, “Creep behavior and deformation mechanisms of a novel directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy at 900°C” , Materials Characterization, Vol. 148, (2019), 201-207,
  4. J.K. Kim, H.J. Park, D.N. Shim and D.J. Kim, “Transient liquid phase bonding of γ′- precipitation strengthened Ni based superalloys for repairing gas turbine components”, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 25, (2017), 60-69,
  5. A. Rezaie and S.E. Vahdat, “Study of effects of temperature and pressure in HIP process on mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys”, Materials Today Proceeding, Vol. 4, (2017), 152-156,
  6. X.W.Jiang, D.Wang, Di.Wang, H.Li and L.H.Lou, “The effect of reheat treatment on microstructure and stress rupture property of a directionally solidified nickel-based superalloy after long-term thermal exposure”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 694, (2017), 48-56,
  7. Y.Y. Kaplanskii, E.A. Levashov, A.V. Korotitskiy, P.A. Loginov, Zh. A. Sentyurina and A.B. Mazalov, “Influence of aging and HIP treatment on the structure and properties of NiAl-based turbine blades manufactured by laser powder bed fusion”, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 31, (2020), 1-12, 10.1016/j.addma.2019.100999.
  8. J. Xua, H. Gruberb, D. Denga, R. Lin, P. Johan and J. Moverarea, “Short-term creep behavior of an additive manufactured non-weldable Nickel-base superalloy evaluated by slow strain rate testing”, Acta Materialia, Vol. 179, (2019), 142-157,
  9. C.D. Pimenta, M.B. Silva, R.L. de Morais Campos, and W.R. de Campos Junior, “, Application of the taguchi method in the investigation of influential heat treatment factors in steel wires”, International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, Vol. 8, (2019), 111-114, https://doi:10.24940/ijird/2019/v8/i3/MAR19029
  10. H. Terzioglu, “Analysis of effect factors on thermoelectric generator using Taguchi method”, Measurement, Vol. 149, (2019), 1-10, https://doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2019.106992.
  11. G. kartheek, K. Srinivas and Ch. Devaraj, “Optimization of residual stresses in hard turning of super alloy inconel 718, Materials today: Proceedings”, Materials today: Proceedings, Vol. 15, (2018), 4592-4600,
  12. A. Kumar, A.R. Ansari, B. N. Roy, and S.  Kumar, “Heat treatment parameter optimization using Taguchi technique”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Education, Vol. 4, (2016), 5965-5974,         
  13. R.M. Dodo, T. Ause, E.T. Dauda, U. Shehu and A.P.I. Popoola, “Multi-response optimization of transesterification parameters of mahogany seed oil using grey relational analysis in Taguchi method for quenching application”, Helicon, Vol. 5, (2019), 1-7, https://doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon. 2019.e02167.
  14. M. Sobhani, H. Ahmadi, T. Javad and A. Esfahani, “Taguchi optimization of combined radiation/natural convection of participating medium in a cavity with a horizontal fin using LBM”, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Vol. 509, (2018), 1062-1079,
  15. A.S. Canbolata, A.H. Bademlioglub, N. Arslanoglua and O. Kaynaklia, “Performance optimization of absorption refrigeration systems using Taguchi, ANOVA and grey relational analysis methods”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 229, (2019), 874-885,
  16. J.A. Daleo and J.R. Wilson, “GTD111 alloy material study”, Journal of Engineering Gas Turbines Power, Vol. 120, (2013), 375-382, http:// doi:
  17. A. Rezaie and S. E. Vahdata, “Study of effects of temperature and pressure in HIP process on mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys”, Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 4, (2017), 152-156,
    1. Kathleen Mills, ASM Handbook Volume 9 Metallography and Microstructures, ASM International Publications, Ohio, (1985)
    2. John N. Dupont,, Welding Metallurgy and weldability of nickel base alloy, A John Wiley and Son Publishing, New Jersey,(2009)
  18. F. Long, Y.S. Yoo, C.Y. Jo, S.M. Seo, Y.S. Song, T. Jin and Z.Q. Hu, “Formation of η and σ phase in three polycrystalline superalloys and their impact on tensile properties”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 527, (2009), 316-369, /10.1016/j.msea.2009.09.016.
  19. M. Berahmand and S. A. Sajjadi, “Morphology evolution of γ′ precipitates in GTD-111 Ni-based superalloy with heat treatment parameters, “International Journal of Materials Research”, International Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 104, (2013), 275-280,
  20. Q. Wang, Z. Li, S. Pang, X Li, C Dong and P. K. Liaw, “Coherent precipitation and strengthening in compositionally complex alloys: A Review”, Entropy, Vol. 20, (2018), 1-23,
  21. P. Zhanga, Y. Yuan, J. Li, Y.F. Xu, X.L. Song and G.X. Yang, “Tensile deformation mechanisms in a new directionally solidified Ni-ba se superalloy containing coarse γ′ precipitates at 650 °C”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 702, (2017), 343-349,
  22. M. Vinoth Kumar, V. Balasubramanianb and A. Gourav Rao, “Hot tensile properties and strain hardening behavior of super 304HCu stainless steel”, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Vol. 6, (2016), 116-122,
  23. A. Dadkhah and A. Kermanpur, 2017, “On the precipitation hardening of the directionally solidified GTD-111 Nibase superalloy: Microstructures and mechanical properties”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 685, (2017), 79-86,
  24. S. A. Sajjadi, S. Nategh, M. Seyed, and M. Zebarjad, “Tensile deformation mechanisms at different temperatures in the Ni-base superalloy GTD-111”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 155-156, (2004), 1900-1904,
  25. L. Zhang, Y. Zhou, X. Jin, X. Du and B. Li, “The microstructure and high-temperature properties of novel nano precipitation-hardened face centered cubic high-entropy superalloys”, Scripta Materialia, Vol. 146, (2018), 226-230,
  26. B. G. Choi, I. S. Kim, D. H. Kim and C. Y. Jo, “Temperature dependence of MC decomposition behavior in Ni-base superalloy GTD 111”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 478, (2008), 343-349,