Document Type : Original Article
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia; Department of Mechanical Technology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
This paper presents an experimental study of addition of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) extracted by the chemical-ultrasonication process from agave cantala leaf plants in the matrix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Combining these materials produce the nanocomposite film with a thickness of 30 μm. The nanocomposite characteristic was investigated by the addition of CNF (0, 2, 5, 8, and 10 wt%) in PVA suspension (3 wt.%). PVA/CNF nanocomposite films were prepared by a casting solution method. The fibrillation of fibers to CNF was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The nanocomposite film functional group's molecular chemical bond and structural analysis were tested using Fourier Transform Infrared and X-ray diffraction. The PVA/CNF nanocomposite film has significant advantages on the ultraviolet barrier, thermal stability tested by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric Analyzer, and tensile strength. Overall, the optimal addition of CNF is 8 wt.% in matrix, resulting in the highest crystallinity index (37.5%), the tensile strength and elongation at break was an increase of 79% and 138%, respectively. It has good absorbing ultraviolet rays (82.4%) and high thermal stability (365oC).